Contemporary architecture is commonly understood these days as functional architecture. It is functional in character though this character alone does not give it the necessary qualities so as to be included in the fine arts, unless the function is articulated in a formal order the grammar of which is the visual language of communication. Art is defined as a creation of mind manifested by means of sensation and perception. The words sensation and perception mean many things that make art expression. In the case of architecture it embraces social, political, technical, human as well as visual considerations. It is the visual consideration which is the most important and vital in architectural expression and it needs greater clarification and realisation in order to convey the true meaning of this art.
Past periods produced styles of architecture, both in Europe as well as in India. These were organised objectives towards visual satisfaction and several imperial methods used through the geometrical relationship of form and space in its attainment with the results, they produced systematised practices in the handling of building forms in all times in the past. Some of the examples of works of art of those periods have a high place even in the present time, because of their successful achievements.
Survey of all outstanding examples of the past periods showed that in addition to physical, technical and other related qualities, the work of art was guided by considerations where they attained visual and spiritual satisfaction which gave certain buildings distinction over the other. This is found in Greek, Roman and medieval periods in west as well as in the historical periods in India in which Buddhist as well as medieval examples are outstanding.
The degradation of architecture during the last two hundred years and the ready made rules of formulae towards art consideration resulted in the general deterioration of architecture. This is true both in painting as well as in architecture. The Beaux art way and the Academic approach to these arts reduced this activity to a regimental pattern. The introduction of machine, particularly the camera—and the scientific inventions also the growing technology of the last hundred years have brought about a new revolution in the art concept, so far as its manifestation goes. Artists, architects, philosophers and scientists tried to experiment with new materials and methods which revealed and established in greater precision the significance and realisation of problems connected with art. These activities clearly explained the considerations of visual presentation pertaining to any form of art. The emphasis was given on space-time as the essence of visual communication. The work of Albert Einstein on the theory of relativity further explains scientifically the space-time as a new dimension
Artists, architects. scientists, industrial designers collaborated basically on a theme of creating human environment through form order based on space-time considerations, in the Bahaus. an institution established by Mr. Walter Gropius. The work of Bahaus opened up a new avenue for visual presentations of all subjects connected with art and established a sound footing on which the present-day philosophy of contemporary architecture is based, as their synthesis was on human environments and visual art—an effort which is recognised by modern sciences—such as psychology, and social sciences.
This language or grammar of art is universally accepted for all visual presentation including industrial art, architecture, sculpture as well as painting and establishes non objective art on a footing on which all physical presentations arc based. It also embraces town planning and landscape architecture as well. Space-time has become a keystone in all branches of art today. Its significance, however, is in the human considerations—namely visual communication registered through the medium of eye.
The factors connected with visual art today are space, form. colour and texture and to meet certain visual demands through which it is communicated requires rhythm tensions, contrast and mobility. Artists, architects and sculptors today are working with this tool through the medium of visual communication as the basic consideration on which art is being practised today. These considerations arc often producing presentations which are abstract in quality or non-objective in character.
Visual grammar is a very important root of architecture and it cannot have its existence without it. It is this consideration which makes modern art universal in character as it is based on human values. This grammar of art is accepted and under stood by all countries of the world and has found a basis on which the expression of architecture of the world countries are shaping through a common language of vision. Our country cannot, therefore, be different to this science.
Study of visual grammar is an integral part of present-day architectural study in the world today. It is with this study that we can master art of our times. It is with this knowledge we can create liveable environment fulfilling the physical as well as psychological demands of community.