The focus of this chapter is to examine some of the modalities of resistance emerging in and around slum rehabilitation schemes in the metropolises of India and Brazil. For most of the slum dwellers in both urban spaces, mobilization means fighting for and defending a place to live in the city and, more broadly, the right to maintain and maybe enhance their livelihoods. Expressed through a very wide range of practices, from direct confrontations and protests in the streets to mobilization movements strongly connected with civil society organizations and structuring strategies to contest the dominant forces, the social movements emerging from the slums seem to be recognized beyond the spatial limits of the slums. We posit that they relate to broader expressions of urban contestation that bring to light some of the major issues at stake in these metropolises. As such, they concern all urban dwellers and strongly contribute to the political structuring of urban affairs.