Ali Mardan Khan, one the most important Persian nobles of Shah Jahan’s reign, was a significant contributor to the field of architecture and landscape design. His life history has been adequately documented, but his contributions in the context of Mughal architecture have not received adequate attention by scholars. His garden in Peshawar was one of Ali Mardan Khan’s most important projects, briefly mentioned by British-era travellers, but lacking an in-depth study. The baradari and the garden were occupied by the Sikhs and the British in the mid-eighteenth and mid-nineteenth centuries, respectively, and later by the Pakistan Army; during these periods, alterations were made to the garden and baradari. While not open to the public because the site is still utilized by the Pakistan Army, in 2006, the author was permitted to undertake thorough documentation and archaeological investigations. This paper analyses Ali Mardan Khan’s baradari and places it in the context of Mughal architecture in the light of historical texts and field research carried out by the author.