From World Heritage to Local Heritage Site: Khajuraho World Heritage Site, Madhya Pradesh India.

World Heritage Guidelines

Existing Framework

Our Recommendations

Definition of Heritage Resource

A heritage resource / building and also a site may be defined based on specific concepts. It can therefore be conceived as whole, which is assembly of component parts. This whole forms a potential unity through, which each part can be described and defined in reference to original intention.Official definition is according to the Monuments and Sites Act 58 (1958) are monuments. In Khajuraho there are 22 protected monuments, including the western group WHS are enclosed within compounds. The officially recognised 22 monuments are standing temples belonging to the Chandella period (12th Century). Even though there are other scattered mounds and associated features around.The redefined cultural resource entity of Khajuraho has its own cultural landscape formed over various periods. In addition to the temples, inherent cultural landscape consists of tanks, wells, historic gardens and groves. Besides, there are “heritage components” belonging to the historical time 18thc (Chattarpur state) and the timeless vernacular architecture of traditional settlements. All of these exist in a complex spatial pattern with multiple relationships. This definition includes the entity, features, redefined heritage components and cultural landscape.

System of Protection of Resource

The aim of management of resource encompasses Physical definition of the existing heritage resource and eventual buffer zone and in the preparation of planning norms for its appropriate conservationLimited protection is provided to the 22temples of the Chandella period by Archaeological Survey of India under their Monuments Act of 1958. The protected area encompasses the walled or fenced enclosure with the monument in it. Upkeep and maintenance of site and buildings are done as per ASI norms.

The area beyond the protection site comprising of first 100 metres radius is treated as prohibited zone and 200 M further as regulated. The Western group is a World Heritage Site also has the same norms applied.

Under the Madhya Pradesh Town Planning Act Khajuraho was recognized as a “unique environment” hence came under a Special Area Development Authority (SADA). Till recently. SADA looked at the heritage sites as a focus to develop around hence proved to be very destructive

The World Heritage Site and protected sites continue to be under ASI.

The newly identified heritage components are managed as contents of the newly proposed Khajuraho Heritage Zone (KHZ). This Heritage zone is the tool for protection, maintenance, and management of the ‘cultural

Resource Entity’ of Khajuraho. The zone extends till Lavanya & Dantla hills, around Tikuri pahar, including the adjacent areas of Lakheri and Rajnagar and Achnar.

The Khajuraho Heritage Zone is conceived as a buffer Zone around the WHS and protected sites, which contain valuable heritage components, associated with the WHS and protected sites. The KHZ denotes the spatial extents for comprehensive heritage management and heritage friendly planning

Protection of Heritage Resource in Legal Terms

Protection of heritage resource in legal terms is understood as legal protection which is based on legislation and planning norms, aims to guarantee defence against any harmful treatment, provide guidelines for proper action, and institute corresponding permissive sanction

The protected zone under the jurisdiction of ASI consisting of the fenced compound in which the temple is situated. Punitive measures for defacing and damaging the ASI property. Madhya Pradesh has its own Act similar to National Monuments Act; also giving protected to very few select structures. In Khajuraho there is no State protected monument.

Madhya Pradesh Town Planning Act is considered a landmark. It recognised the need for flexibility to manage heritage areas. It created the powerful Special Area Development Authority (SADA), for its management. Khajuraho was considered “unique environment” hence had SADA to guide development. However SADA proved totally ineffective and Khajuraho is used as an “object

“to develop around. In 1998 the SADA has been dissolved a proof to its inherent problems. The true potential of this concept was not utilized. This could have been guided to become the Buffer Zone for these sites

Need for improving existing systems of protection and management at all levels is the attempt. To bring a broader scope of heritage within a management framework.

The proposed cultural resource entity, a spatial definition and redefined heritage of Khajuraho fall into these compartments:

National: Apart from Chandella temples includes the mounds belonging to the 12thc. Protected and managed by ASI.

District: Protection to temples and structures of Chattarpur 18th century, natural features of the cultural resource entity like Hills, River, Streams will be provided by District authority under Heritage zone guidelines. Appropriate heritage resource management with stakeholders involvement.

Heritage Zone / Local: Heritage components including Indigenous landscape and trees, Historic Gardens and their components (Temples walls, Wells, etc.) rocky outcrops, Mounds, Traditional Settlements and Vernacular Architecture. These will be provided local protection by the Nagar panchayat / municipal body following Heritage zone guidelines.

Proposed Khajuraho Heritage Zone and its management seeks to focus on the cultural resource entity, unprotect heritage and handle diverse management needs utilising existing administrative framework and local community involvement

Site Management

The first requirement of site management is the conservation and protection of its cultural resources and where possible, the enhancement of features of special interest. Once this requirement is fulfilled, the site can be used for a number of other purposes such as education, research, tourism, and even occupation. The integrity of the resource must be maintainedThere is no comprehensive notion of site management. Horticulture and beautification is the main activity under this head. The term “management” itself needs to be defined along with numerous other established conservation terminologies.

The current management seeks peripheral protection of select temples through fencing. Not much emphasis is laid in the protection of fabric itself.

There is no comprehensive resource management plan by ASI for the World Heritage Site and other protected sites and monuments of Khajuraho.

All the resource projects are piecemeal and do not add up for overall protection and management of the resource

The most important task of site management is to attempt to reintegrate this cultural landscape from evidences in the ground and as far as possible try to protect and manage the ‘rediscovered’ heritage and integrate it into an overall management. The information generated through redefinition and rediscovery is the basis for heritage management.

Levels of site management to be considered are; Heritage Zone, World Heritage Site, Protected area sites, and unprotected sites.

Comprehensive Site management plan for each site. It will cover all heritage contents of site – maintenance, repair, regular routine tasks and needs of the site for circulation, visitor needs etc. The site well presented and communicated

Administration

The role of the administration and management team is to conserve the heritage resource and to serve the public interest. Responsibilities should be decentralised and individual staff members should be allowed to make their own immediate decisions, within the context of the management plan and their pre-defined responsibilities. They should posses special understanding to the strength and weaknesses of different types of personnel engaged in conservation activities.

Administrators are not trained to make environmental, technical or artistic inputs that constitute the essence of conservation. A good management guide of the staff and permits them say in decision making

Khajuraho is a sub-circle under ASI. Administration is most important and top heavy.

The organisational structure of ASI consists at National Level: Director General, Additional DG, Deputy DG; all from the Indian Administrative Service meaning non-technical. Directors of nine divisions (monuments, exploration & excavation, museum, antiquities, conservation science and epigraphy, horticulture)

Circle level: Each Circle has its own Superintending Archaeologist, Deputy Supt. Archaeologist, Archaeological Engineer, technical and administrative staff.

Normally circle has two kinds of technical staff, Field (Civil Engineers) and Non field (Archaeologist Scholars). These circles have following sections library, drawing and survey, photography and administration.

Sub-circle level: The Sub-circle has Senior Conservation Assistant, local staff and personnel (Grade I and II).

Currently the entire ASI is being restructured. At this stage it is difficult to judge since the process is not complete, but the thrust is towards decentralisation and providing more powers to the superintending Archaeologist of the Circle

Khajuraho Heritage Zone

Khajuraho Heritage Zone Resource Centre (KHZRC) will be the decision making body comprising of technical experts, key administrators from the existing administrative body and elected representatives from the local community.

The body will also prepare Heritage Zone Document comprehensive plan and list actions in priority order over Heritage Zone.

Finance Management Committee will assist the KHZRC in managing the finances generated from existing sources and securing finances from private organizations. It will comprise of finance management professionals.

The resource projects will be awarded to professionals empanelled by KHZRC. KHZRC will regularly monitor and evaluate the progress of its projects. Depending upon spatial location and nature of project there will be collaborative efforts with local pantheist /municipality / other organizations.

WHS and other ASI protected areas will remain under the supervision of ASI only. The Heritage Zone Document will include these in its scope and fill up the lacuna that exists.

The areas around will be resolved by ASI and KHZRC by preparation of special plans,

which will regulate development, use, height etc. these plans will be part of HZ document

Management and Planning Program

Management should be organized by resource projects according to a standard methodology. The subplans with outline for site staff, site management, annual programme of projects and their associated costs, time allocation etc. Management plan should be for a minimum period of five years.

Since programming will depend on both the capacities of the staff and the budget, resource projects must be identified in advance and implemented in order of priority (immediate, urgent, necessary, desirable keep watch, future liabilities). Management plans can be categorized into Long term management plans, which are of above 5years of duration, Medium term less than 5year and annual work plans

No management plan for site and its structuresas per World Heritage Guidelines.

Existing method: Annual work plan under S.R. (Plan) and A.R. (Non-Plan) include all works carried including acquisition of land for museum etc. Adhoc measures are popular. Current ongoing tasks observed are cleaning and anastylosis of ancillary structures on protected sites may be categorized long-term. Contemporary definitions of terms “management, maintenance, planning and programming” need to be introduced and understood. Existing notions are quaint and outdated

The Proposed Comprehensive Conservation Plan for Khajuraho Heritage Zone is the key plan for a management system as part of Khajuraho Heritage ZoneDocument.

The aim is to create a system for heritage management and bring in multidisciplinary approach.

The Comprehensive Conservation Plan gives long-term vision and addresses all heritage components with a management programme for each item. This includes annual work schedule, maintenance, budget, resource projects etc.

Item like World Heritage Site Management Plan will be drawn up with ASI. Item Special Area Plan around World Heritage Site will be drawn up with help from ASI and local bodies. Staff of Khajuraho Heritage Zone Research Centre has technical and local representatives giving it competence to prepare plans and programmes. This centre is assisted by Financial Management Committee (FMC) with finance professionals to approve the budget according to priorities.

The panel of professionals will execute resource projects

Control and Cost Policy

Controlling the costs of conservation projects is critical. Much time and money is wasted, and damage caused to cultural buildings, due to lack of clear concepts of conservation policy and firm control in executionVery irrational in ASI.

Peripheral tasks take the lion’s share. Out of the different works that are undertaken by ASI a very large part of money is spent on installing and thereafter maintaining compound walls, fencing, grills, paving, flood lights, etc. Replacing stones of temple platforms, anastylosis of ancillary shrines on the WHS are the most popular fabric intervention. Cleaning is ongoing but under a separate Division, a parallel activity.

Technical expertise involvement is minimal in conservation works including structural repairs. The tendency is to avoid challenge and as there is no prioritisation of work for effective maintenance of structures and this is a distressing situation.

The cost estimation of technical tasks under S. R. plan and A. R. non-plan are based on DSR and are executed like CPWD work. This is comparatively difficult than non-technical tasks. Therefore the latter is preferred

Setting up the necessary support for planned Heritage management programmes that can be monitored and address the complexity of heritage.

Decision making body is Khajuraho Heritage Zone Resource Centre, Finance Management Committee and elected personal from local community. Comprehensive Conservation Programme identifies resource projects and their priority.

Financial matters are handled by FMC, which is a group of finance professional.

Various professionals are empanelled for the execution of resource projects

Budgeting

Budgeting site commission must be able to plan five year ahead and retain any surplus funds. Annual budgeting should be established within a longer term financial plan. The budget will be divided into several parts with subheadings.

To manage such a complex operation and monitor the implementation of the budget by quarterly or monthly and even spot checks, an efficient system of accounting is essential. Independent accountants who will report through the director to site commission should audit annual accounts.

Heads of departments will manage such funds as are delegated to them by the director, and will be accountable for their correct use.

If any budget item is likely to be exceeded, the directors’ sanction must be obtained before expenditure is incurred or committed

System Conservation Programme is made each year for sanction of money. This will include new works and pending works (RCP). Budgeting for Bhopal Circle is made on the basis of estimates submitted by the Sub-circles and Superintending Archaeologist of Circle. The allocated amount by centre per circle is increasing every year.

The money spent in conservation work is subjected to ‘Internal Audit’.

Process of budget estimate:

An officer from Circle Archaeologist or Engineers will make an inspection. Conservation Assistant of sub-circle will be asked to prepare estimate by Superintending Archaeologist. On the basis of this, tender notice is issued and conservation work is given to the lowest biding Contractor. The contractor is normally registered with ASI. He is a diploma engineer who is given outdated conservation training.

Superintendent Archaeologist of each Circle controls the money. The money is allotted in Ist week of April every year.

There is no accountability of money spent by D.G.

Financial management committee will sanction the plans and projects as per priority recommended in CCP of Khajuraho Heritage Zone document of KHZRC.

Financial Management Committee will redistribute money (collected from existing and new private sources) for the implementation of CCP in Khajuraho Heritage Zone document recommendations as a part of an integrated plan. It will categorise work as Special projects on conservation, Routine Project for each site.

The research projects for each site will follow documentation, inspection, and research as Pre action and Post action projects.

All reports, works, documentation records and research work will be kept at KHZRC as a part of information management.

The projects will be executed by conservation Architect or by a team co-ordinated by conservation architect accountable to KHZRC, FAMC and the client. The panel of experts will monitor the development of the project

Reporting and Reviews of Work Plan

The efficiency of management depends on reporting at regular intervals. There would be two types of reports on various research projects.

Short term reporting and review

  • Monthly or quarterly assessment of the progress of each individual project, which will allow priorities and time allocations to be modified.
  • All annual summary of the progress of individual projects (or group of

projects) together with associated financial and staff time costs. (Annual progress report project based)

Long term reporting and review. Review after five years period

Reporting and review resources are very rudimentary. Needs to be developed. Annual reports are a must but carry very selective information of major work and normally get delayed. Details of project / work are available only in files at Sub-circle office and are not published. Files must be there, but these good traditions are dying out because of lack of staff and increasing demands.

Before and after photographs are taken but are not adequate as only records for documentation.

There is no proper system of review. There is no tradition of recording, writing, drawing, up-gradating information. The methods used are not up-to scientific / technical standards

Proposal is to bring out a very big change in procedures and processes. Introducing a new culture in heritage management as an integrated and holistic approach to the process. Heritage management is an overall management.

Long term vision and step by step process is adopted to reach the goal.

Redefinition of heritage is our first five-year theme at a broader scale.

Reports and review system to follow.

Professional who have skills both intellectual and skills of communicating through writing, learning through experience, drawing, recording, and put up information systematically.

Regular Maintenance Program

Based on initial inspection of the heritage building followed by careful research, analysis and recording.

Preventive Maintenance First action Maintenance strategy tasks should be integrated into a scheduled routine, which would cover

  • daily tasks, including cleaning and polishing
  • weekly tasks
  • monthly tasks e.g. control of plant growth on building and sites
  • quarterly tasks
  • seasonal tasks e.g. cleaning of the growth of spring tasks/autumn
  • annual task
  • quinquennial task
  • Emergency tasks (after heavy rain, high winds, fire, and earthquake)
Based on initial inspection of the heritage building followed by careful research, analysis and recording.

Preventive Maintenance First action Maintenance strategy tasks should be integrated into a scheduled routine, which would cover

  • daily tasks, including cleaning and polishing
  • weekly tasks
  • monthly tasks e.g. control of plant growth on building and sites
  • quarterly tasks
  • seasonal tasks e.g. cleaning of the growth of spring tasks/autumn
  • annual task
  • quinquennial task
  • Emergency tasks (after heavy rain, high winds, fire, and earthquake.
The maintenance and management strategy is prepared in Comprehensive Conservation Plan. It include inspection, drawing plans, diagnosis, schedule of works, etc.

Work items for all categories are clearly mentioned and have to be done.

Management Plans indicates categories of work as Annual, immediate and regular (Daily, weekly and monthly).

Professionals to be employed for each task who will follow the schedule.

The maintenance and management strategy is prepared in Comprehensive Conservation Plan. It includes inspection, drawing plans, diagnosis, schedule of works, etc.

Work items for all categories are clearly mentioned and have to be done. Management Plans indicates categories of work as Annual, immediate and regular (Daily, weekly and monthly). Professionals to be employed for each task who will follow the schedule

Officially for ASI documentation means before and after photographs. Contemporary definition is required.

The drawings are not architecturally accurate. These do not show condition. These are not applicable for maintenance programme.

Dr. Krishadeva has done only documentation of Chandella temples. The drawings are not technical though they look attractive. Platform is not shown in plans. The elevations only show the profile of these temples. The stone courses of jointing are not shown. The drawings don’t show various levels. They don’t bring cut changes (intervention) done over time period.

Programme for documentation is a part of theinformation processing and management. It is a major task recommendation.
A successful maintenance strategy requires the involvement of responsible professionals who are properly qualified to observe and diagnose causes of decay, carry out regular inspections and prepare formal reports to the site commissionTill date, no conservation architect was appointed in ASI.

The cleaning work is normally undertake by people from nearby villages, who are hired on daily wages. However they are not properly trained

Totally professionally in the attempt.

Empanelment of various professionals from different cadre will be done in research centre. Training programme unit assists professionals in upgrading their skills. This is the method adopted to bring in trained professionals

Ideally professionals should be attachedon a part time basis to the site commission. They should be given authority to implement any recommendations they might make in annual progress reports, as well as the right to call in outside scientific advise and to obtain second opinion.

In the implementation of maintenance actions, professionals are involved together with supervisors, craftsperson conservators and all the general staff working under site commission

No professionals Needs major improvementand development of cadre.

Staffing and personnel of ASI is lopsided. ASI has employed various categories of staff and personnel in Khajuraho. Majority of the staff consists of attendants, gatekeepers, caretakers and the security personnel. Another major chunk of the staff consists of gardeners. For each of the branches, there is some administrative staff and support. There is a few technical staff consisting of electrician (for flood lighting), chemical assistant, assistant museum superintendent. Unfortunately there is hardly any technical staff for looking after the needs of the heritage itself, such as structural engineers, chemists, conservation architects etc. are far from adequate

KHZRC has conservation architects who co-ordinate the work. The professionals from the panel are awarded specific tasks. Hence maintaining technical competence.

Monitoring and Maintenance Program

System should be designed to assist cost monitoring. It will be necessary for all concerned to keep weekly time sheets and to use the correct categories and descriptions of the work they have executed. Supervisors should check and countersign time sheets, look for any discrepancies and prevent waste or theft of materials. They should also set work targets for each staff member, and compare the actual costs of time and materials with estimated costsCosts of ASI projects are totally irrational. The priorities are lopsided.

Redefine “maintenance and management”, the management programmes are not aimed at maintenance of resources

A system for monitoring has been set up, KHZRC and Finance management Committee will monitor expenditures and progress of work. Comprehensive Conservation Plan gives a programme for reference for monitoring task
Security and Safety
Security is the responsibility of the site managers and should not be left only to hired guards, who will merely cause security costs to escalate.

Specialists’ advice is desirable, however but it should be considered together with the needs of fire protections and the safety of the occupants of buildings

There is an obsession for security.

Very recently a security agency SIS has been hired for security purposes. This has led to an unnecessary increase in expenditure. Moreover each temple has one guard (watchman) of ASI who work in shifts. This is limited as resources are scattered.

Lightening conductors have been put for safety of structures. There are no occupants. Light fittings are provided in some temples

Only normal watch and ward is required. The participatory nature of KHZRC makes people more involved and interested in this special facet of their locality / area

Site Commission

The site commission should act as a guardian of the site. Its primary duty is to conserve and manage the site. The

form of the site commission should be dictated by practical consideration be it task force agency, commission etc. should fit into the national administrative pattern. Certain bodies such as committees of city councils could act as site commission.

Site commissions relation to the national government should be such that it has sufficient freedom of action.

The role of the site commission also involves informing the public of the importance of the World Heritage Site. Its duty is to accept and apply interaction conventions and charters while taking into consideration, local and internal laws and customs, determine and oversee the implementation of the most acceptable ways of maintaining using and protecting the site under its control.

The site commissions responsibility is to reconcile the legitimate interests of the local inhabitants with those of the visitors, who come to their site.

It is desirable that the site commission has a budget for providing general information, promoting public awareness and accommodating school education and that the mass media and other channels of communications be used to publicise the site worldwide.

Training and licensing of guides is usually the responsibility of the site commission. Although depending in a large part on a state grant for site preservation and research studies, the commission should be allowed to raise money from tourists in order to develop the site and so increase visitors’ enjoyment, as well as defraying some costs.

No independent site commission is observed for the World Heritage Site. A Sub-circle of ASI manages it under a conservation assistant.

The Sub-circle of ASI has no freedom. It is dependent on Circle.

The local laws and customs are not considered while undertaking various ways of maintaining running and protecting the site land acquisition is 100 and 300 m zone.

There is a considerable conflict between ASI and local community who are being alienated through acquisition of land. There is lot of hostility already. People are also unhappy with malfunctioning of SADA.

At site level no financial independence is given. The money generated from tickets goes to the central fund. All works are dependent on the central grants. Money raised from tourism is not available for the conservation or site management.

The Khajuraho and its immediate environs are under SADA who is supposed to undertake development activities. There is no emphasis on the cultural resource itself. Fortunately SADA has been dissolved recently and the charge is under District Collector

KHZRC is equivalent to site commission.

Various heritage related tasks that will be carried out by / in this cultural resource centre

include: decision-making, making plans, programmes, action tasks, etc.

Four kinds of units are envisaged within the newly constituted resource centre.

  1. Cultural information management unit
  2. Cultural resource maintenance and management unit
  3. Technical unit
  4. Training unit

the above units will do the following: Information processing for various purposes such as folders for the visitors, architectural knowledge systems and crafts knowledge processes.

KHZ document for H.Z. of Khajuraho Improved site interpretation, awareness presentation and media

Management strategies for various categories of heritage say for Temples and evolve better ways of repairing cleaning and consolidation.

Stone conservation unit to record and masonry structure various deterioration is stone of Chandella

Village development and physical infrastructural upgradation plans for each settlement. Village regeneration plan. Generation of contemporary vernacular. Training local people in various skills.

Training local people to become guides. Technical local people in repairing stone

Visitor Services
Tourism policy should take the following factors into account.
  1. Useful distinction should be made for various categories of visitors such as vacationers, day visitors, school parties etc.
  2. A significant proportion of revenue earned from tourism should be applied for the benefit of conservation.
  3. . The best long-term interests of the people living and working in any host community should be the primary determining factor in selecting options for tourism development.

Education programmes should assist and invite tourists to respect and understand the local way of life, culture, history and religion.

No specific distinction made for categories of visitors. Bias for the privileged.

The pilgrimage destination and pilgrims are not projected. Shivratri is an event that is not emphasised. This event is more meaningful than the dance festival.

Money raised from tourism is not available for the conservation or site management. Numerous craft centres are springing up but its benefits do not reach the local communities. In fact the recent trends has totally alienated the local communities.

There is no specific management plan for site and visitor need.

The state of basic amenities for visitors is poor. There are only two toilets in the site. However one of them is not in use because of poor visibility. The site has three water coolers for drinking water but many of them are not working. Moreover these are visually incompatible to the site.

 

Site management plan and visitor needs:

Visitor service objectives must be clearly formulated. The objectives will need to be discussed with the site commission, local authorities and tourist bodies to ensure that there is no conflict.

The plan will have to address such issues as

  • income from entry charges
  • benefit of local tourist business
  • potential damage to heritage resource
  • carrying capacity, reduction of congestion through planning
  

Essentials:

  • Provision of basic amenities
  • Well designed and landscaped parking lots.
  • Site presentation and interpretation
  • Site equipment for lighting, should not harm ancient walls.
  • Use of various media for interpretation

e.g. clearly written notices, didactic plans, badges, quick guide books, Panels, plans, leaflets, guides, batches souvenir books, human guides, museums, exhibitions, models, film, TV, video, sound and light performance.

  • Signage
  • Maintenance of staff and crew required for the above
  

Economics:

  • Entry charges need to be determined so that services for visitors can be improved, without reducing the funds available for conservation work, which must be kept separate on the budget.
  • Additional revenue from catering or sales of literature, photos, drawings, guides etc.
  • Advisable to give local people free entry at least once a week
ASI charges entrance fee of Rs. 5/ to the Western Group (WHS). On Shivratri day and every Friday the entry is free.

The potential of site for a variety of activities is not tapped.

Indian tourism policy has focussed on the foreign tourist.. Much publicised Khajuraho dance festival is another ill-conceived “Heritage tourism” action. The various tourism Departments and the Archaeological Survey of India do not work in an integrated and co ordinate fashion that benefits the overall management of the site

 
Information and Research Activities

Inventory and documentation

A full inventory and documents of the buildings with their contents and the landscape of the site must be prepared. The inventory should provide a brief description of the resource, the important dates in its history, and its location. Such sketchy information can be fleshed out with references.

The inventory can be catalogued using a computerized system.

The new generation of personal computers makes it possible for each major site to have its own computer. A competent consultant with experience of setting up computers for documentation of cultural heritage should be employed to help prepare a purpose made thesaurus and train staff in preparation of material.

Given good fieldwork, computer is an invaluable tool for management. Since it can process basic data in so many different ways. It also implies that all staff concerned is using the same information, which can be updated, revised or expanded by a single operation.

For site covering a large area or having complex urban elements, consideration could be given to the possibility of using GIS technologies to efficiently manage the data.

Several types of techniques for recording heritage resource may be considered either independently or in combination depending on the case record/rectified photography, stereo photogrammetry. CAD or image processing

Dr. Krishnadeva has done only documentationof Chandella temples. The drawings are not technical or accurate though they look attractive. Platform is not shown in plans. The elevations only show the profile of these temples. The stone courses of jointing and constructional details are not evident. The drawings do not show the various levels. Changes and interventions made are not indicated. Hence it is not acceptable as a technical document

Not Applicable

Information management

A clear heritage information management policy is required. This is necessary also for the purposes of standardising procedures, ensuring that the information is in a form that is compatible with that from other sources, and thus exchangeable both in the national context and at a regional or international level.

Heritage database – Photographic or microfilm copies made of documents. Access to these documents by researchers, students and interested people should be encouraged, the proper storage is essential. Trained librarians and archivists, adequate space and proper storage conditions are essential

World Heritage Day and a Heritage week are celebrated. Khajuraho has a site as annual events. Museum conveniently located close to the WHS. There is a plot for a new Museum. Another collection of sculptures is housed in the Jardine museum.

The libraries at Circle office and Central library at Delhi contain only published documents. No information storage at site. Access to these libraries is restricted

The main priority of information management is education for local community Education will become important mean to make local community conscious of the local knowledge, which they posses but are not able to comprehend at intellectual level. Academic curriculum of schools to inculcate this knowledge in local community.

The database is housed at the local Resource Centre

Other outputs are for visitor information handouts. The KHZRC can be use the same information for conservation and management of the heritage zone.

Research Planning
Issues What issues demand research, how should research be managed.

To answer these it is advisable to set up a research co-ordination committee for the site, answerable to site commission. This committee could organize long term programmes involving a succession of researchers or short-term programmes for individual. It could also schedule and monitor the progress of all research projects, as well as advise on the award of related grants and contracts

The ASI is primarily a management organisation and their task is to repair and maintain the sites as per the established norms of heritage management. Large proportions of personnel are historians and have a capacity for some research. But their research is not applied to the management challenge therefore it becomes counter productive. This also results in conflicting theories and a way of bypassing management responsibilities. ASI must concentrate on site management only (Refer to Hampi Strings)The Khajuraho Heritage Zone Resource Centre is equivalent to Site commission.

The Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) identifies the areas for research for the near future. These research projects can be undertaken by renowned scholars. The immediate research areas identified are : Complete architectural documentation, Traditional water network systems, architectural knowledge systems for vernacular settlements, local stones (building materials) etc