Note for the user: this guide is a compilation from various International Charters and publications. This is to help develop the rules and regulations by the Department of Archaeology to be appended to the Archaeological park Charter.
DEFINITION OF CULTURAL RESOURCE
It is well understood that land is a “resource”. It is also understood that water is a resource. Today the value of these natural resources are well appreciated because society has begun to suffer from its scarcity and the problems associated are challenges to management. Humankind, especially living areas, less understands heritage as a resource. Architectural heritage both big and small, above ground or below ground is a cultural resource. Cultural resource is very different in its properties / characteristics and hence the management methods are also different from other resources. Therefore it has to be considered separately and studied as per its attributes. All cultural resources are man made and not natural endowments. Built heritage is a kind of cultural resource that embodies design, and technical knowledge. Cultural resource is a public property to be shared by all members of the society for its better future, because it encompasses architectural and technical knowledge that has enormous utility for the future.
- Cultural resource’ refers to the archaeological, architectural, religious and natural heritage components, which contribute to the overall significance of the Kangla fort.
- In its broadest sense contains all the signs that document the activities and achievements of human beings over time (WHC).
- This may include historic buildings, structures, sites, city/ town / settlement, historic villages, group of buildings, cultural landscapes, historic gardens, historic housing and traditional housing, archaeological parks and also vernacular architecture and the intangible aspects like traditions and customs
- They are architectural works, works of monumental sculpture paining, elements or structures of an archaeological nature, inscriptions, cave dwellings and combination of features, which are of outstanding value from the point of view of history, art or science. WHC
- The concept also includes not only the singular architectural work but also the urban or the rural setting in which is found the evidence of a particular civilization, a significant development or an historic even. This applies not only to the works of great art but also to more modest works of the past, which have acquired cultural significance with the passing time.
Groups of Buildings
- Groups of separate or connected buildings, which because of their architecture , their homogeneity or their place in the landscape, are of outstanding universal value from the point of view of history, art or science(World Heritage Convention)
- Works of man or combined works of nature and of man including archaeological sites which are of outstanding universal value from the historical, aesthetic, ethnological or anthropological point of view. (World Heritage Convention)
- An historic garden is a _'architectural and horticultural composition of interest to the public, from the historical or artistic point of view. The term 'historic garden' is equally applicable to small gardens and to large parks, formal or 'landscape'. (Florence Charter)
- This is that part of the material heritage in the aspect of which archaeological methods provide primary information. It comprises all vestiges of human existence and consists of places relating to all manifestations of human activity, abandoned structures and remains of all kinds (including subterranean and underwater sites), together - with all the portable cultural material associated with them. (Lausanne Charter). .
- Ruins must be maintained and measures necessary for the permanent conservation and protection of architectural features and of objects discovered must be taken. Furthermore, every means must be taken to facilitate the understanding of the monument and to reveal it without ever distorting its meaning.
Conservation generally means all processes of looking after a cultural heritage so as to retain its cultural significance. It includes maintenance and according to circumstances may include consolidation, preservation, reconstruction and adaptive reuse. Most commonly a combination of all or some of the above.
- (All efforts designed to understand cultural heritage, know its history and meaning, ensure its material safeguard and, as required, its presentation, restoration and enhancement. (Cultural heritage is understood to include monuments; groups of buildings and sites of cultural value as defined in article one of the World Heritage Convention).
- The aim of Conservation is to retain the cultural significance of heritage. General principles for conservation:
- Conservation is based on the respect for the existing fabric and should involve the least possible intervention. It should not distort the evidence provided by the fabric.
- It should make full use of all disciplines, which contribute, to the study and safeguarding of the heritage resource.
- Techniques used traditional but in some cases they may be modern ones based on firm scientific basis, which is supported, by a body of experience.
- Conservation of cultural resource should take into consideration all aspects of its cultural significance without unwarranted emphasis on any one aspect at the expense of others.
Preservation it deals directly with the cultural property. The objective is to keep it in the existing state. This includes repair but only to prevent further decay. The emphasis is on prevention of damage and decay caused due water, pests, chemical agents etc.
- Preservation involves no change to the fabric of the resource. And by implication allows the natural deterioration of the fabric to continue at a retarded rate. Preservation involves least intervention. Preservation work may be carried out as first protective step, while the other works are being investigated.
Consolidation this involves addition or application of adhesive or supportive material to the actual fabric of the cultural property in order to ensure its continued durability or structural integrity.
- Restoration the act of restoration is carried out to revive the original concept or legibility of the object. Re integration and restoration of details and features id done based upon respect for the original material, archaeological and documentary evidence and original design. It must stop at the point where conjecture begins. It should be preceded by an archaeological and historical study of the Structure.
Reconstruction it is the actual rebuilding of historic structure based on accurate historic documents and evidences. This is the last resort and should be avoided. Reconstruction may be necessitated in case of destruction of historic structures in earthquakes, fires or any other manmade or natural disaster.
Maintenance continuous protective care of the resource, its setting.
Authenticity and Integrity of the cultural resource – in order to be significant the property must have integrity of “ location, design, setting, material, workmanship, feeling and association”. Which implies that the original setting should be maintained, it should not be a relocated property, the design and the spaces should not have been altered to a great extent. In case of sacred and traditional resources the physical integrity should be maintained and also should be known or likely to be regarded by the traditional group as important in the retention or transmittal of a belief, or to the performance of a practice, the property can be taken to have an integral relationship with the belief or practice, and vice – versa.
Cultural Significance means the aesthetic, historic, scientific, or social values for the past, present and future generations. Cultural significance is a concept, which helps in estimating the value of cultural heritage. The places that are likely to be valuable are those, which help in an understanding of the past or enrich the present and which will be of value to the future generations.
Historic Value It encompasses the history of aesthetics, science, and society, and therefore to a large extent underlies aesthetic, scientific and social value. A cultural resource may have historic value because it is influenced, or has been influenced by, an historic figure, event, phase or activity. It may also have historic value as the site of an important event.
Social value embraces the qualities of which a cultural resource has become a focus of spiritual, political, national or other cultural sentiment or minority group.
The scientific or research value of a cultural value will depend upon the importance of the data involved, on its rarity, quality or representativeness, and on the degree to which the place may contribute further substantial.
Fabric means all the physical materials of the resource
Historic Evidence of a cultural resource any information that it embodies in the physical form like materials, architectural features, building structure, interiors, furniture, artifacts, engravings and sculpture. Any addition and alteration done to historic building is also considered as historic evidence and should not be removed without careful thought and analysis.
RESEARCH AND DOCUMENTATION
- Research is a very important constituent of conservation process. Any historic site has great potential for research in many different areas. Research is a continuous process and the body of knowledge has to be constantly updated through research.
- Conservation research is not for academic purposes but has a heritage management objective. In this project some preliminary research has been done which has resulted in the development of the management system.
- This has to be presented to the people of Manipur. It is possible that this may raise more interest in the site and result in expanded body of knowledge.
- The documentation and recording of the cultural heritage is essential:
- To acquire knowledge in order to advance the understanding of cultural heritage, its values and its evolution;
- to promote the interest and involvement of the people in the preservation of the heritage through the dissemination of recorded information;
- to permit informed management and control of construction works and of all change to the cultural heritage;
- to ensure that the maintenance and conservation of the heritage is sensitive to its physical form, its materials, construction, and its historical and cultural significance.
- Documentation and recording should be undertaken to an appropriate level of detail in order to:
- Provide information for the process of identification, understanding, interpretation and presentation of the heritage, and to promote the involvement of the public;
- provide a permanent record of all monuments, groups of buildings and sites that are to be destroyed or altered in any way, or where at risk from natural events or human activities;
- provide information for administrators and planners at national, regional or local levels to make sensitive planning and development control policies and decisions;
- provide information upon which appropriate and sustainable use may be identified, and the effective research, management, maintenance programmes and construction works may be planned.
- In all works of preservation, restoration or excavation, there should always be precise documentation in the form of analytical and critical reports, illustrated with drawings and photographs.
- Every stage of the work as well as technical and formal features identified during the course of the work should be included. This record should be placed in the archives of a public institution and made available to research workers,. It is recommended that the report be published (Venice Charter)
Documentation of Structures and other Physical remains by measured drawings
- Documentation should be done both in form of survey drawings and photographs. There should be accurate survey drawings of all entities. The historic buildings should be drawn to scale, with conventional signs to indicate their type, composition and position.
- The most convenient scales for survey drawings are 1:500 for site plans, 1:100 and 1:50 for general plans, isometric drawings and isometric projections, and 1:10 and 1:5 for details. A scale of 1:2 should not be used as it can be easily confused with 1:1.
- Plan should be drawn 1m above the ground level. All facades should be drawn in orthogonal projection. Sections should be drawn through the most significant portions and. All heights should be clearly indicated.
- Along with the drawings a clear schedule of materials of the historic building/ fabric should drawn out.
- All original field recordings should be carefully filed and catalogued for further reference.
Inventory as Documentation technique
- For cultural resource management. Inventories constitute primary resource databases for scientific study and research. The compilation of inventories should be regarded as a continuous and dynamic process. It follows that inventories should comprise information at various levels of significance and reliability since even the most preliminary information can be the starting point of protection.
- Photographic documentation related to Kangla has been done as a part of the preliminary survey. There are very few surviving old photographs of the buildings in Kangla. The points to be considered include:
Examination of old photographs where available.
- Condition of the building recorded in detail, along with the various special features. Photographs of defects in demarcated problem areas to be provided with brief descriptions and analytical notes.
Aspects to be documented for buildings based on Knowledge System
- The type of building – stand alone or part of complex
- Time period of building
- History associated with the building
- Information related to the building structure: plinth foundation walls, structural system, roofing, flooring, the masonry used in the walls, openings – doors and windows, ventilators, architectural features, decorative features, internal finishes and a detailed schedule of the materials used.
- The spaces within the building their original and present uses
- Empirical information – height of building, size of spaces, height of columns, size of openings, niches, ledges and other numerical information
- Documentation of artifacts and other movable objects within the structure
- Information about the surrounding of the building or if housed in a complex the description of the complex
- Existing services, electrical lines etc.
Documentation of Traditional Properties ( intangible heritage):
- Documenting visible and non – visible characteristics it should not only contain the physical description of the property in the present and the history but also the way it has been described in the r tradition belief or practice. Ex, one of the important cultural locations on mt. Tonnachaw in Turk is an area called “Neepisaram”, which physically looks like nothing but a grassy slope near the top of the mountain. In tradition, however, it is seen as the ear of “kuus”, a metaphorical octopus identified wit the mountain, and as the home of “saraw”, a warrior spirit or barracuda. Obviously the description of Neepisaram will be incomplete without this information.
- Period of significance – this ca be a challenge. There can be two periods for such properties the mythological or the traditional period and the second the period often more relevant the period of use for traditional purpose.
- Boundaries – in defining boundaries the traditional uses the property has been put to should be carefully recorded.
- Setting – qualities of the property, visual, auditory and atmospheric setting that contribute to its significance, including those qualities whose expression extends beyond the boundaries of the property as such into the surrounding environment.
Techniques for preliminary Survey
- Contacting Traditional Communities and Groups – Consult with groups and individuals that have special knowledge about and interests in the history and culture of the area to be studied. The following steps should be followed for the identification
- Background Research - conduct background research on what is already recorded about the history ethnography, sociology and folk life. Published and unpublished sources about the areas social and cultural groups should be consulted. Students of the areas should also be consulted. Any government agency that concerns itself with the matters of traditional culture should also be consulted.
- Making contact – contact knowledgeable and relevant groups and individuals, particularly those who have resided in the area for a long time.
- Fieldwork – fieldwork to identify such historic properties involves the consultation with knowledgeable parties, coupled with field inspection and recordation of locations identified as significant by such parties.
Investigation of each structure / component should be done before carrying out any conservation action.
Purpose of investigation:
- Investigation is crucial for “ identifying and retaining and preserving the form and detailing of those architectural materials and features that are important in defining the historic character of the historic structure” and also assessing the condition of the structure to direct repair.
Principles of investigation
- The purpose and the scope of investigation need to established before formulating an approach
- Investigation is a three-step process – historic Research (from secondary sources), documentation (both in terms of drawings and photographs systematically space wise of the present condition), and inventory.
- Specialist team should be constituted for Investigation.
Inspection and investigation done through actual physical observation (manual)
The first step is a thorough investigation of all surfaces external and internal to observe every possible detail about the design and construction, the structural and the environmental problems, possible alterations.
- Following the investigation all the observation should be duly recorded on a measured drawing and photographs should be taken duly referred to the drawing
- The following aspects have to be looked at
- Original construction and the alterations
- The materials used for construction should be carefully recorded. Look through the areas where the plaster and other surface renders have disappeared this will give information about the layers of render, the underlying, covering material and structural material, masonry type and the composition of the render.
- Look at whether the walls are in a plumb or not, are there any bulges or cracks. These bulges and cracks should be observed over a period of time to see if the defects are increasing.
- All damp mark levels and salt marks should be duly noted.
- The floor levels should be recorded to see if there is settling. Any marks that show placement of furniture or use of carpets should also be recorded.
- The conclusions derived from the manual investigation indicate where to test and what to test.
carried out through testing of the building material or onsite investigation through mechanical means.
This is the next level of investigation. There are two types of investigations
- Non-destructive testing – this method should be followed as far as possible. These techniques do not damage the fabric of the structure.
- These include X rays, boroscopes and optical fiber technology etc.
- Small samples and materials taken from areas where they are already exposed can be taken for laboratory tests.
- Remote sensing and radar techniques: These techniques provide information about the subsurface deposit and together with documentary evidence will provide information about the likely remains of the buildings.
- For archaeological areas an under ground radar can be used. The output should be used in the light of documentary research and other field observations. This is a non – destructive technique.
- Specialized equipment and professional are required for such tests.
- Destructive techniques –
- Should not to be used.
- To be used in exceptional circumstances and under professional super vision only
- Repair is a corrective action used to arrest decay and deterioration of a historic structure. It involves direct intervention with the physical form of the building. Repair may include one or combination of actions such as preservation, consolidation, restoration. After maintenance this is the first action taken to arrest decay it stops short of reconstruction and conjecture.
- The primary purpose of repair is to restrain the process of decay, without damaging the character of the heritage components.
Principles of repair:
- The condition of the building must be recorded before carrying out any repair. Complete recording is essential before, during and after any intervention. Precise documentation must be in the form of analytical reports illustrated with photographs and drawings.
- Repairs should also be preceded by a survey of its structural defects over as long as possible, together with an investigation of the nature and condition of its materials and other causes, in repair the aim should be match the existing materials and methods of construction in order to preserve the integrity of the heritage component.
- Historic evidence must not be falsified, destroyed or removed
- Any repair must be the minimum necessary
- Abstinence from speculative restoration or reconstruction
- In all possibility any intervention should be reversible
- Works of repair should be kept to the minimum required to stabilize the buildings and historic structures with aim of achieving a sound structural condition to ensure long-term survival. Unnecessary replacement of historic fabric should be avoided. This will adversely affect the appearance of the historic structure and will seriously diminish the authenticity of the component and reduce its value as a source of historic information.
- New methods should only be used where they have proved themselves over a period of time and where traditional alternatives are not available. Additions, alterations and earlier repairs can be historic importance for the part they play in the cumulative history of the monument or the historic structure. Therefore should be preferably retained.
Guidelines for Repair of Masonry Structures
- Damaged masonry
- Damaged masonry should not be replaced or reconstructed if it can repaired as it will loose its value
- No new paints or stucco work should be added to the masonry Paint from historic masonry should not be removed
- Cleaning of masonry should only be done after carrying out tests, which should be observed over a sufficient period of time. Sand blasting or other abrasive methods should not be used for the cleaning of masonry.
- No repointing or any other repair work should be done with mortar of Portland cement content unless it is component of the historic mortar as this can cause further damage to the historic structure.
- No masonry feature such as cornice or balustrade should be replaced or reconstructed when repair is possible.
- Decayed and damaged pointing
- Pointing is the finish to the mortar between the bricks on the surface of a wall. Pointing is an important influence on the appearance and durability of a wall. The pointing is one of the most sensitive parts of the building. When the pointing is damaged a number of problems are caused starting from penetrating dampness, which further leads to weakening of the wall. Depending on the damage, the treatment to a wall would vary. The problems related to damaged or decayed pointing needs to be handled on a case-by-case basis.
- Re-pointing is the refilling of the outer part of the joints where the previous pointing has weathered out or is unsuitable. There are a number of ways in which re-pointing can be done. These include flush, semi-recessed, jointed joint, tuck or double struck pointing. Re-pointing may not always be necessary. It should not be assumed that repair to pointing is needed just because the existing mortar is weathered to a rough face or appears soft when probed with a tool.
- Re-pointing should be considered necessary only when
- Mortar joints are truly soft, crumbling and loose.
- Mortar joints have opened or have weathered back to such an extent that water is seeping into the brickwork.
- An unsuitable hard impermeable mortar has been introduced trapping moisture, thereby accelerating the deterioration of the bricks.
- While re-pointing care should be taken to ensure that
- Re-point only when necessary. Identify the true cause of decaying brickwork first, and leave sound mortar alone.
- While removing defective mortar, care should be taken not to damage the bricks. Avoid mechanical methods.
- While re-pointing, efforts should be made to find a well-preserved area of the original brickwork nearby and use that as a model where replacement of pointing is required. As far as possible the original mortar combination should be used, but lime based mortar is preferable, since cement rich mixes cause damage.
- Mortar should be kept away from outer surface of bricks.
- Poor pointing spoils historic structure forever. Specialist advice should be sought before carrying out extensive re-pointing.
- Cares should be taken not to change the width or the joint profile when repointing.
- The plaster needs to be restored to the extent possible. The main aspects one needs to keep in mind are:
- Same materials and composition should be used as far as possible.
- The new portions, which are restored, should be evident and care should be taken so that the restored portions are not considered original.
- The case of absence of plaster, efflorescence, dampness in plaster all need to tackled on a case-by-case basis.
- Cracks in buildings
- The cracks need to be tackled on a case-by-case basis depending on the type and the nature of the crack. Ideally, the cracks need to be monitored over a period of time to ascertain its nature. The cracks need to be classified as to whether they are structural or any other. Depending on the nature of the crack, their growth pattern and the damage caused, the solution required would vary.
- Missing elements
- Missing elements is another major problems related to the buildings in Kangla. In some of the buildings, decorative features like the column capital, molding at the roof and cornice level, frieze above the window, parapet balusters on the roof etc., are damaged, destroyed or missing. They need to be restored to the extent possible.
- The following should be avoided
- Replacement of a feature when repair of the masonry or limited replacement of the deteriorated part is appropriate
- Creating a false historical appearance by recreation of the element in absence of historical evidence
- Introduction of new masonry features that is incompatible in shape size and colour.
It means the continuous protective care of the fabric, contents and setting of the place and is to be distinguished form repair. (Burra charter)
Maintenance includes all practical and technological measures that are needed to keep the site in condition at the standard that permits enjoyment of the cultural resource without damage. It is a continuous process. Monitoring of the maintenance programme is necessary. It has combinations of all technical and administrative action intended to retain the fabric of the resource in a state in which it can perform its required function.
Maintenance is preventive action. It does not involve direct intervention into the structure. It involves actions such as cleaning, removal of vegetal growth cleaning of rainwater gutters, removal of obstruction from the drainage lines and prevention of theft and fire. The continuous protective care of the fabric, contents and the setting of the cultural entity.
A scheduled routine would cover daily tasks including cleaning and polishing, weekly tasks, monthly tasks e.g. control of plant growth on buildings and sites quarterly tasks, seasonal tasks e.g. spring and autumn, annual tasks, quinquennial tasks.
The scheduled routine should also have flexibility, in order to allow emergency tasks to be tackled promptly, such as after heavy rains, after high winds, after a fire, earthquake, flood or any other natural disaster
This work is necessary to maintain the performance 9of the building fabric and its service.
Maintenance of structures
Remedial Measures for Vegetation growth
Vegetation growth on the buildings is one of the most critical problems seen in the old buildings. In most buildings, the growth of vegetation on the surfaces of the buildings has caused a lot of damage to the building structure.
Reasons for the growth of vegetation on buildings:
- The presence of dampness on the surface of the buildings favors the growth of the plants.
- Lack of knowledge about the harmful aspects of the vegetation growth.
- Periodic removal of plants does not take place.
- There is no regular maintenance for the buildings.
The growth of vegetation on the walls and roof of the building causes a lot of damage. This is manifest in the form of cracks seen along the walls and the roof. In some cases the roots of the plants / trees have penetrated up to the floor level of the building. The roof in some cases is filled with a dense growth of vegetation, which causes water stagnation and dampness. The growth of plants needs to be stopped completely. They need to be removed completely.
Solutions for vegetation growth:
- The plants and roots need to be removed manually. This has to be done regularly and periodically.
- Certain proven chemicals are said to effectively destroy the plants. These could be used to destroy the plant completely with its roots.
- Traditional methods of destroying the plants completely with the roots have also been proven effective.
Remedial measures for Dampness
Dampness is usually related to lack of maintenance.
- Improving site and soil drainage
- This proves very effective in case of buildings with thick masonry walls. In any case sloping the site away from the building is always effective. Lowering the site level in relation to the floor level helps in reducing dampness in the floor.
- Provision of a drainage channel around the building to drain out the excess water also helps
- The regular cleaning of drains and keeping the drainage lines of the roof help to keep descending damp away.
- Repairing the existing roof to prevent problems of moisture entering due to faulty junctions etc.
- Avoid mechanical means of cleaning such as sandblasting or dry or wet grit. Do not use chemicals for cleaning masonry
- Cleaning should be done with gentlest methods possible like using brushes and low-pressure water stream.
- Wherever solvents need to be used tests should be performed over a very small section of masonry over sufficient period of time.
- Do not remove paint that firmly adheres to the surface of the masonry
- Maintaining the roof by cleaning gutters regularly. Roof sheathing should be checked for proper venting to moisture to prevent moisture condensation and water penetration.
- Make sure that all parts of the structure are insect free.
- Archaeological heritage is a fragile and non – renewable Cultural Resource. Land – Use must therefore be controlled and developed in order to minimize the destruction to the archaeological heritage.
- General survey of any archaeological area is a prerequisite.
- Do not excavate without methodical prospecting and documentation Avoid use of heavy machinery
- Where the buildings are to be removed care should be taken not to damage any under ground archaeological material
- Do not excavate adjacent to a historic structure or monument as it might damage the foundation.
- Clearing refers to the removal of unwanted material including vegetation immediate vicinity of a historic monument or archaeological area. The growth of vegetation too close to a heritage structure or an archaeological area needs to be removed.
- ‘Prospecting’ means to look for object, mineral ore, water etc., below the surface of the ground. In this case, it refers to the archaeological evidences lying beneath the surface of the earth. Prospecting here would be required to identify the extent of the citadel, remnants of fort wall etc., below the surface of the Kangla fort.
- An archaeological excavation always involves some destruction or irreversible change to the fabric of the heritage resource. Excavation on significant sites should only be done as a part of a proper conservation strategy. In most cases this will mean a limited excavation to discover some crucial information, or as part of work which is essential to protect the fabric of the heritage resource.
- Excavations should be carried out in accordance with scientific standards and the recommendation defining international principles to be applied in the case of archaeological excavation adopted by UNESCO in 1956.
- After the prospecting is done, excavation sites need to be delineated. Excavation could then take place.
DEMOLITION / REMOVAL OF BUILDINGS OR PARTS
Conservation requires the maintenance of an appropriate visual setting. Form Scale, Colour, texture and materials. No new construction or demolition or modification which adversely affects the setting should be allowed.
A building work should remain in its historical location. The moving of all or one part of a building is unacceptable unless it is the sole means of survival
Cultural significance often stems from the Cultural resource’s relationship with it’s surrounding. This relationship can demonstrate important aspects of its history and this evidence is lost if the relationship is broken.
Reuse or Adaptive reuse refers to the act of adaptively reusing a building for a use other than its original use. Adaptive reuse must ensure that the inherent character of the building is not altered, and any changes introduced are sympathetic to the existing building fabric. The building is suitably restored and renovated to adapt itself for the changed use.
Principles of reuse
- The cultural value of the structure should be established before the reuse work starts. It should be clear what is important to be retained within the building. The primary spaces and areas and secondary spaces and areas need to established by a thorough analysis. The outstanding characteristics that need to be retained – the spaces, the structure, the exterior or the interior need to be established.
- The condition of the structure should be thoroughly recorded before any work starts.
- No reuse work should start before the historic structure is conserved and is structurally sound.
- Before any reuse project starts a comprehensive reuse plan should be in place duly approved by the Kangla Fort Archaeological Park Committee.
- The fabric of the building and the volumes of the spaces within will indicate the new use that can be incorporated.
- While reusing a structure the spatial and the technical integrity is of priority.
- While deciding on any use it should be kept in mind that the use should have meaning for the community.
- The new use should be given according to the available space such that it can be accommodated with minimum change.
- Inserting of new floors should be avoided
- Bathrooms and other service areas should be located in secondary spaces of the historic building or outside.
- Do not demolish any walls or other structural components, which may alter the floor plan. Where new partitions are being employed they should be such that they do not significantly change the space or cover any feature. They should also be reversible or removable.
- Do not change the number, size, location or form of the openings. Do not block any windows or doors or entrances.
- Installation of new openings if required should be done on the rear elevation or the non- character defining elevation. Such design should be compatible with the old one.
- If false ceilings or dropped ceilings are being employed in the reuse design then provide set backs from the windows to allow the full height of the windows to be seen.
- New and mechanical services to be introduced within the structures should be so placed so
- that they are inconspicuous from the public right of way and do not damage or obscure the character defining features of the historic structure.
- Wiring and other conduiting should not be concealed in a manner that historic material or building fabric gets damaged.
- Do not cut through masonry walls in order to install air conditioning and other services.
Historic Open Spaces And Gardens
The permanent or movable architectural, sculptural or decorative features which form an integral part of the historic garden/ landscape must be removed or displaced only insofar as this is essential for their conservation or restoration. The replacement or restoration of any such jeopardized features must be effected in accordance with the principles of the Venice
Charter, and the date of any complete replacement must be indicated.
The historic garden/ landscape should be preserved in appropriate surroundings. Any alteration to the physical environment, which will endanger the ecological equilibrium, must be prohibited. These applications are applicable to all aspects of the infrastructure, whether internal or external (drainage works, irrigation systems, roads, car parks, fences, care taking facilities, visitors' amenities, etc.).
No restoration work and, above all, no reconstruction work on a historic garden/ landscape shall be undertaken without thorough prior research to ensure that such work is scientifically executed and which will involve everything from excavation to the assembling of records relating to the garden in question and to similar gardens. Before any practical work starts, a project must be prepared on the basis of said research and must be submitted to a group of experts for joint examination and approval.
While historic gardens/landscape may be suitable for quiet games as a daily occurrence, separate areas appropriate for active and lively games and sports should also be laid out adjacent to the historic garden/ landscapes, so that the needs of the public may be satisfied in this respect without prejudice to the conservation of the gardens and landscapes
The work of maintenance and conservation, the timing of which is determined by season and brief operations, which serve to restore the garden's/landscape authenticity, must always take precedence over the requirements of public use. All arrangements for visits to historic gardens must be subjected to regulations that ensure the spirit of the place is preserved.
The historic garden/ landscapes is one of the features of the patrimony whose survival, by reason of its nature, requires intensive, continuous care by trained experts. Suitable provision should therefore be made for the training of such persons, whether historians, architects, landscape architects, gardeners or botanists. Care should also be taken to ensure that there is regular propagation of the plant varieties necessary for maintenance or restoration
Provisions For Disabled Persons
Make the main or the principle access or the entrance accessible where possible and required. Ensure accessible path to all areas and facilities
Where toilets and facilities are provided ensure that at least one is accessible to the disabled users Methods of interpretation and communication should aim to be suitable for all users and for a range of disabilities.
Train staff and volunteers to understand to understand the needs of people with disabilities and the best means of ensuring their appreciation of the place.
Provide Kerb ramps and additional ramps at places wherever there is level difference. Convenient gradient and firm surfaces should be provided in all path ways
The conservation of the cultural resource/ site/ complex does make it comprehensible but it does not convey the sense of process or change. The policy for interpretation should be to convey the idea of change and continuity to show that history includes distant and the recent past.
It includes any form of presentation of factual material and interpreted meaning of the site or any other heritage item, whether on site or off site. Brochures, web sites, media coverage and advertising all involve interpretation. Information as such is not interpretation
Interpretation is an essential method for promoting an understanding of the understanding of the development of modern societies and sites. At the same time it also the most important means of promoting an understanding of the needs of its protection.
Research the subject strive for accuracy Research audience
Entertain as well as educate Provide context
Design solutions for interpretive experiences should not only provide physical accessibility but also facilitate full enjoyment and comprehension of the environment by the greatest diversity of people.
Presentation and interpretation should be conceived, as a popular interpretation of the current
state of knowledge and it must be therefore revised continuously. It should take into account the multi – faceted approaches to an understanding of the past.
- Work on any cultural content must be preceded by professionally prepared studies of the physical, documentary and other evidence and existing fabric recorded before any intervention.
- All types of skills and techniques are required for any conservation work.
More than one person may have to contribute to the work, to bring together the necessary skills and knowledge. Through discussion and argument, people with different perspectives and specialties can develop a more rounded and refined understanding than one person on their own. To assemble an effective working group requires knowledge of what each expert can contribute – it is not just a matter of ticking off a list of professionals.
Special skills may also be needed in working on the fabric. The traditional craft practice includes appropriate methods of repair and preservation – this traditional knowledge needs to be tempered with knowledge of particular conservation issue of the case. Some traditional techniques have proven to be undesirable, so customary use is not a guarantee of suitability.