Architexturez Imprint for National Institute for Advanced Studies in Architecture (NIASA)

The emergence of computers and communication technologies, including Computer Graphics (CG), Computer aided design (CAD), Photogrammetry, Virtual Reality (VR), Geographic Information System (GIS), Global Positioning System (GPS) and web-based technologies foster the birth of 3D digital cities. The creation of 3D digital cities has become a trend for better understanding the built environment.

A 3D digital city is defined in this book as a comprehensive, web-based representation, or reproduction, of several aspects or functions of a specific real city or a virtual city, open to all kinds of users.

This volume will depict the recent development of digital cities in order to address why and how we are creating digital cities. The introductory chapter provides an overall review the recent development of digital cities. 3D digital cities are not only representing the characteristics of cities, but its users and activities within the cities. In this volume, the cases selected to demonstrate the digital city development including different regions such as Asian cities (Tainan, Kaohsiung, Beijing, Kumamoto, Okayama, Singapore), Europe (London, Glasgow, Bath, Graz, Livepool, Sheffield), and virtual ones (Chung-An, Cyberjaya), and North America (LA). The applications of city modeling spread from virtual visits, cultural exploration to urban design. If there is one city to go, then various approaches and technologies demonstrate their availability to deliver city data and usefulness.

The book should be of interest to people working in a variety of fields including the following.

(1) Practicing architects and urban planners
(2) Researchers and developers in digital cities
(3) Teachers and students in planning and design domain

During the one and half years editorial period, it is a challenge to the editor, because the difficulty to demonstrate the whole story of digital city development, to search of international expertise to write each article, and to finally edit the topics as a serial of articles in a book. Fortunately, the editorial work is with full cooperation from the authors contribute the main contents of the publication. The international contributors include Dr Michael Grant (Strathclyde), Prof. Alay Day (Bath), Dr Andrew Hudson-Smith, Stephen Evans & Prof. Michael Batty (UCL), Prof. Wolfgang Dokonal (TU Graz), Dr. Chengzhi Peng (Sheffield), Prof. Andre Brown (Liverpool), Prof. Heng Chye Kiang (Singapore), Prof. Chiu-Shui Chan (ISU), Prof. Mitsuo Morozumi (Kumamoto), Prof. Atsuko Kaga and Prof. Tsuyoshi Tee Sasada(Osaka U), Dr. Ahmad Rafi Mohamed Eshaq (Cyberjaya), and Prof. Han-Liang Lin (NCKU). I am particularly grateful for the assistance by Dr. Chengzhi Peng and Mr. Anand Bhat for their encouragement and editorial comments.

Meanwhile, ARCHIDATA (Taipei) and Architexturez Imprints India (Delhi) provide publication distributing service. Mr. Jyun- Min Chen and my research assistant Miss Jia-Mint Hsu support editorial work. Because all these factors make this publication possible, the most valuable experience can be shared with the future CAAD practitioners, educators, and researchers.

INSIGHTS OF 3D DIGITAL CITIES: THE PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURES

Mao-Lin Chiu, Professor, Department of Architecture, National Chang Kung University

The recent developments of Computer Aided Design (CAD), Geographic information System (GIS), and Web based technologies seem to have motivated the creation of 3D digital cities (3D cities in short) around the globe. The stories of why and how people created 3D cities and what are their uses at present or in the future are increasingly being sought after by people in academic as well as in industry This introductory chapter provides an overall review of the development of 3D cities its aim is to introduce readers some representative examples of 3D cities created recently by people working in the field and in so doing. We hope to set up a general of age for playing out each specific story to be told by the following chapters.

THE GLASGOW DIRECTORY A PORTAL TO URBAN INFORMATION

Dr Michael Grant, ABACUS, Department of Architecture, University of Strathclyde

The Glasgow city model is one of the most important precedents in 3D digital city development. Started in the mid 1980, an academic exercise at the University of Strathclyde in the capture and use of geometrical data on a large geographical scale the activity grew into the construction of one of the first computer based urban models. The paper introduces the trace of the Glasgow Directory project and its content evolved with internet and technological advancement over the last two decades its experience provides an important lesson for future digital city creators.

A DIGITAL MODEL OF A HERITAGE CITY: THE BATH EXPERIENCE

Alan Day, Centre for Advanced Structure in Architecture, University of Bath

This chapter will review the construction of the Bath Model since its conception in 1992, then how it has been used and how it might develop in the future. It will then go on to raise some issues which are generic to all urban models and argue that such models tend to be driven by the technology that underpins their creation rather than by the needs of potential users.

VIRTUAL LONDON: FROM CAD TO 3-D GIS TO GLOBAL DIGITAL CITIES

Hudson-Smith, Research Fellow; Stephen Evans, Research Fellow and Michael Batty, Director, Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis (CASA), University College London, London, UK

This paper depicts the innovative spatial data information based on the development and dissemination of three-dimensional GIS (3-D GIS), which allows data to be visualized and queried. The paper argues here that 3-D GIS will only become a reality when it is directly linked with CAD models: and that the Internet is the most appropriate medium through which this is most likely to occur. The paper illustrates these arguments in an overview or research into the virtual city in general and our own development of ‘Virtual London’ project. Further. It explores the rise of the global virtual city a network of virtual cities that provide an insight into the future of digital space.

THE DIGCITY PROJECT OF GRAZ CREATING A CULTURAL CAPITAL IN 3D

Dr. Wolfgang Dokonal, Department for Urban Design University of Technology Graz

Graz located in Austria at the central Europe was awarded the Cultural Capital of Europe in 2003. To create a digital city of Graz in 3D, the paper reviews the development process of the DIGCITY project and key issues in city modeling such as the data source, levels of detail, interfaces, and the quality of city models. Finally, the prospect of digital city is presented. Searching for the right tools of “front-end interfaces” for the specific user groups to access the data derived from city models is considered as the important step for city modelers.

MODES OF DELIVERY OF DIGITAL CITY MODELS THE CASE OF LIVERPOOL – CAPITAL OF CULTURE

Andre Brown, Professor School of Architecture, The University of Liverpool

The Liverpool project provides an approach to consolidate and deliver city models digitally. The core planned use of these models is as a tourist guide as well as planning tools for revealing the new European capital of culture. Today, effective delivery of digital city models becomes important for city development. Therefore, the project conducts the study of feasibility and appropriateness of different techniques for delivery of such information to mobile devices, and to more conventional computers over internet connections.

BUILDING A DYNAMIC VIRTUAL CITY BASED URBAN DESIGN PLATFORM: THE SHEFFIELD EXPERIMENTS

Chengzhi Peng, Senior Lecturer, University of Sheffield, Pro Edinburg University M.Arch Strathclyde University, B.Arch Tungfai University

Chinese translated by Mao-Lin Chiu

This article depicts a dynamic virtual city system (SUCOD) it was further developed into a web-based urban design platform, and applied to urban design courses at University of Sheffield. The study focus on how multi-dimensional urban contexts can be linked visualized and applied into urban design analysis in design process. Townscaping program is further developed to pursuit the goals. The findings and discussion are presented.

CULTURAL EXPLORATION OF AN INVISIBLE CITY THE DIGITAL RECONSTRUCTION OF TANG CHANG’AN AND ITS WARDS

Heng Chye Kiang, Professor, Department of Architecture, National University of Singapore

Representation of non-existing city is a great challenge. It not only relies on careful architectural historical research, but also depends on computer simulation to recreating the ancient city. However both face different problems and require careful data preparation that is different from the real cities. This article explores an ancient city by using digital technologies to represent a thousand year old Tang Chang’an for city cultural exploration. The issues of 3D city representation in the case of Changtsun are discussed. The process and experience cab be worthily shared.

CONSTRUCTING A VIRTUAL BEIJING TO IMPLEMENT DIGITAL PLANNING

Chiu-Shul Chan, Professor, Department of Architecture/VRAC, College of Design IOWA Stace University

Urban from analysis is an important task in the field of urban planning. This chapter depicts the process of constructing a Virtual Beijing with three-dimensional simulation for implementing urban planning digitally. The inner city of Beijing was selected as the subject matter for exploration, and the Xidan Business District area was the focus for studies on the urban form. This article briefly describes the modeling process and the feasibility, usability, and the applicability of the digital city for future research, Therefore, a new research frontier of ‘transparently visualizing the digital urban ordinances’ is created.

CITY MODELING AND INTERFACE FOR URBAN DESIGN-THE KUMAMOTO EXPERIENCE

MITSUO MOROZUMI, Professor, Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering. Kumamoto University, Japan

The downtown Kumamoto city is the major commercial area adjacent to its famous historical castle. In order to promote urban redevelopment, it is essential to provide an attractive environment and strengthen the characteristics of the micro-scale spatial structures existing in the area. The chapter suggests that the study of relationship between people’s activities and spatial information can provide general guidance for urban design. A digital city model and a prototype of an interactive visual simulation system are developed by using the linked QTVR technique for presenting city images. The empirical studies findings from simulations point out that linked QTVR images of a place catch a sense of sequential movement and people can virtually experience window-shopping and strolling activities in a specific area by using the system. Features of the linked QTVR as a city model and findings are presented.

INTERACTIVE ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN USING 3D DIGITAL CITY ARCHIVES

Atsuko Kaga, Associate professor, Graduate School of Engineering. and Tsuyoshi Tee Sasada Osaka University Professor Emeritus, Osaka University,

This chapter depicts a digital approach towards environmental design concerning with the space that surrounds people. Three projects are introduced to demonstrate the process and the outcomes that adopting 3D Computer Graphics as a design as well as communication tool. 3-dimensional digital archive becomes a platform for environmental design examination. Scenario writing is employed to simulate how people involved in space, and by using a scenario, the object of a design and activities can clarify the concrete target of a design practice of environmental design using such a 3 dimensional digital archive is safe to land to production of bolter designs.

INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) AND INTELLIGENT CITIES: A MALAYSIAN EXPERIENCE

Ahmad Rafi, Faculty of Creative Multimedia, Multimedia University (www.mmu.edu.my)

The rapid development information and communication technologies (ICT) have influenced the development of real and virtual cities. This article depicts the Malaysian’s experience in suggesting and maintaining two cybercities or intelligent cities. The main elements contributing to the success of an intelligent city include. (1) Broadband infrastructure. (2) Knowledge force, (3) venture capital, (4) digital democracy and (5) marketing prowess. Finally, it reports a portal of digital city of Malaysia’s new administrative Capital, Putrajaya for providing the services for different level of target audiences of the civic and urban activities.

INFORMATION MINING FROM CITY ARCHIVES FOR URBAN DESIGN: KAOHSIUNG EXPERIENCE

Han-Liang Lin, PhD (Leeds, UK), Assistance Professor, Department of Urban Planning, NCKU

City archives contain useful information for urban design such as geographic and statistical data that are often organized by the geographic information system (GIS), The city model is more than just a repository of images and artifacts if the planning data can be incorporated with GIS. This chapter uses the Kaohsiung city as an example to demonstrate how spatial data modeling can cluster patterns in order to study temporal-spatial relationship. Furthermore, information mining techniques is applied to identify land-use spatial patterns by Geographic Analysis Machine (GAM)

REDISCOVERING A CULTUAL CITY DIGITAL TAINAN EXPERIENCE

Mao-Lin Chiu, Professor, Department of Architecture, National Chang Kung University

City is a live organism or an information repository that containing important elements of living places. Using Tainan as an example the paper aims to rediscover the city modeling and depicts the city modeling process for cultural exploration and large scale urban redevelopment From an information mining viewpoint, the city model built has various levels of details and it consists of street and building tags for identification and the web-based interface is built for retrieving information and better understanding of the environment changes as well as the progress of urban development. The demonstration of Digital An-Ping and discussion are presented.

「CAAD Talks」是一系列叢書關於電腦輔 助建築設計的尖端發展。自從西元 2003年 起,CAAD Talks 1:『數位建築發展』, CAAD Talks 2:『設計運算向度』,與CAAD Talks 3:『數位設計教育』接續著出版。這 些出版品說明已浮現出的實務、研究、與 教育的重要課題。隨著之前的風格,結合 不同學者專家的經驗,這一本特別的專書 是來描述一個重要的議題:數位城市的發 展。

隨著全球資訊網(www)的快速發展,加 速了數位化時代的來臨,而網際網路最重 要的特性為超越了空間物理性的限制,實 質活動已延伸至虛擬環境中,因此城市的 發展需能反映其城市活動條件。在實質城 市中,城市使用者獲取城市資訊與經驗的 方式便是親身體驗。而透過數位科技之普 遍性,結合網際網路與城市資訊,許多傳 統城市亦致力於數位化的革新,因而產生 了所謂的「數位城市」(digital city)、「虛 擬城市」(virtual city)。電腦與通訊技術包 括電腦圖學、電腦輔助設計、攝影量測 儀、虛擬實境、地理資訊系統、全球定位 儀與網路技術等提供三維數位城市的發生。 同時也成為一種瞭解既存環境的趨勢。

為了後續的討論,本書將「數位城市」 (digital city)定義為:「一個真實或虛擬 城市,具有城市的隱喻與空間性,提供豐 富完整的、電腦資訊或網路通訊技術為基 礎的、或視覺表現的等多元面向類似於都 市中的功能或服務給其使用者。」

本書將描述最近三維數位城市的發展以提 出我們為何與如何產生數位城市。首章提 供關於其發展的整體性概論。三維數位城 市不只是代表城市的特性,也包括其使用「CAAD Talks」是一系列叢書關於電腦輔 助建築設計的尖端發展。自從西元 2003年 起,CAAD Talks 1:『數位建築發展』, CAAD Talks 2:『設計運算向度』,與CAAD Talks 3:『數位設計教育』接續著出版。這 些出版品說明已浮現出的實務、研究、與 教育的重要課題。隨著之前的風格,結合 不同學者專家的經驗,這一本特別的專書 是來描述一個重要的議題:數位城市的發 展。 隨著全球資訊網(www)的快速發展,加 速了數位化時代的來臨,而網際網路最重 要的特性為超越了空間物理性的限制,實 質活動已延伸至虛擬環境中,因此城市的 發展需能反映其城市活動條件。在實質城 市中,城市使用者獲取城市資訊與經驗的 方式便是親身體驗。而透過數位科技之普 遍性,結合網際網路與城市資訊,許多傳 統城市亦致力於數位化的革新,因而產生 了所謂的「數位城市」(digital city)、「虛 擬城市」(virtual city)。電腦與通訊技術包 括電腦圖學、電腦輔助設計、攝影量測 儀、虛擬實境、地理資訊系統、全球定位 儀與網路技術等提供三維數位城市的發生。 同時也成為一種瞭解既存環境的趨勢。 為了後續的討論,本書將「數位城市」 (digital city)定義為:「一個真實或虛擬 城市,具有城市的隱喻與空間性,提供豐 富完整的、電腦資訊或網路通訊技術為基 礎的、或視覺表現的等多元面向類似於都 市中的功能或服務給其使用者。」 本書將描述最近三維數位城市的發展以提 出我們為何與如何產生數位城市。首章提 供關於其發展的整體性概論。三維數位城 市不只是代表城市的特性,也包括其使用 者與都市的活動。本書中所選擇的城市包 括不同區域,例如亞洲城市 (台南、高雄、 唐長安城、北京、熊本、岡山、與Putrajaya), 歐洲 (巴斯、格拉斯哥、倫敦、格拉茲、利 物浦、與雪菲爾) , 以及虛擬城市( 虛擬 Cyberjaya), 與北美洲的洛杉磯。城市模型的 應用從視覺模擬、虛擬導覽、文化探索到 都市設計等。如果需要有一個數位城市, 此書顯示如何以不同的方式與技術來顯現 城市資料與其用處。

本書主要對象包括以下的讀者: (1) 實務界的建築師與都市規劃者 (2) 數位城市的研究者與開發者 (3) 規畫與設計領域的教師與學生

在過去一年半的編輯過程中,對於編輯者 是一個挑戰因為難以顯示整體性數位城市 發展的難度,搜尋國際間專家來撰寫各篇 文章,以及最後編輯成具系列文章的一本 專書。幸運的是編輯工作有來自所有作者 全力的配合以提供本書的主要內容。國際 性作者包括來自英國史特斯克萊得大學的 麥可.葛蘭博士、巴斯大學的亞倫.戴教 授、倫敦大學的安德魯.史密斯博士、史 蒂芬.伊凡、麥可.培提教授、奧地利格 拉茲科技大學吳扶剛.多戈諾教授、英國 雪菲爾大學彭誠治博士、利物浦大學建築 系安德列.布朗教授、新加坡國立大學建 築系王才強教授、美國愛荷華州立大學建 築系陳超萃教授、日本國立熊本大學兩角 光男教授、日本大阪大學環境工學加賀有 津子副教授與田剛史教授、馬來西亞多 媒體大學阿瑪.拉飛.穆哈默院長、以及 成功大學都市計畫系林漢良助理教授。我 特別感謝彭誠治博士與安納.巴赫的鼓勵 與編輯上的建議。

同時,台北建築情報(ARCHIDATA)與印度 德里Architexturez Imprints提供出版經銷的服 務,以及天晴文化陳俊民先生與研究助理 徐嘉敏支援編輯工作。由於所有上述因素 使此書順利發行,因此珍貴的經驗可以與 未來環境設計的實務者、教育者與研究者 分享。

在本書最後編輯的階段,我們很遺憾地接 到田剛史教授的噩耗。體認到許多與他 一起工作的同事曾建立數位城市,以及許 多他所指導的學生是在探討三維電腦視覺 模擬領域,他皆給予了許多創意與重要的 想法。因此,將本書題獻給他以紀念其長 期的貢獻。 者與都市的活動。本書中所選擇的城市包 括不同區域,例如亞洲城市 (台南、高雄、 唐長安城、北京、熊本、岡山、與Putrajaya), 歐洲 (巴斯、格拉斯哥、倫敦、格拉茲、利 物浦、與雪菲爾) , 以及虛擬城市( 虛擬 Cyberjaya), 與北美洲的洛杉磯。城市模型的 應用從視覺模擬、虛擬導覽、文化探索到 都市設計等。如果需要有一個數位城市, 此書顯示如何以不同的方式與技術來顯現 城市資料與其用處。 本書主要對象包括以下的讀者: (1) 實務界的建築師與都市規劃者 (2) 數位城市的研究者與開發者 (3) 規畫與設計領域的教師與學生 在過去一年半的編輯過程中,對於編輯者 是一個挑戰因為難以顯示整體性數位城市 發展的難度,搜尋國際間專家來撰寫各篇 文章,以及最後編輯成具系列文章的一本 專書。幸運的是編輯工作有來自所有作者 全力的配合以提供本書的主要內容。國際 性作者包括來自英國史特斯克萊得大學的 麥可.葛蘭博士、巴斯大學的亞倫.戴教 授、倫敦大學的安德魯.史密斯博士、史 蒂芬.伊凡、麥可.培提教授、奧地利格 拉茲科技大學吳扶剛.多戈諾教授、英國 雪菲爾大學彭誠治博士、利物浦大學建築 系安德列.布朗教授、新加坡國立大學建 築系王才強教授、美國愛荷華州立大學建 築系陳超萃教授、日本國立熊本大學兩角 光男教授、日本大阪大學環境工學加賀有 津子副教授與田剛史教授、馬來西亞多 媒體大學阿瑪.拉飛.穆哈默院長、以及 成功大學都市計畫系林漢良助理教授。我 特別感謝彭誠治博士與安納.巴赫的鼓勵 與編輯上的建議。 同時,台北建築情報(ARCHIDATA)與印度 德里Architexturez Imprints提供出版經銷的服 務,以及天晴文化陳俊民先生與研究助理 徐嘉敏支援編輯工作。由於所有上述因素 使此書順利發行,因此珍貴的經驗可以與 未來環境設計的實務者、教育者與研究者 分享。 在本書最後編輯的階段,我們很遺憾地接 到田剛史教授的噩耗。體認到許多與他 一起工作的同事曾建立數位城市,以及許 多他所指導的學生是在探討三維電腦視覺 模擬領域,他皆給予了許多創意與重要的 想法。因此,將本書題獻給他以紀念其長 期的貢獻。

邱茂林, 2005-10-15, CAAD Lab, 成功大學建築系