1975, the theorist Paul Virilio published Bunker Archaeology, a documentation of some of the 1,500 bunkers built by the Germans
[Paul] Virilio ... used Bunker Archaeology as a way to express his own fascination with the scale of construction and destruction the fortifications made evident: "You could walk day after day along the seaside and never once lose sight of these concrete altars built to face the void of the oceanic horizon."
The violence they once enabled was no longer in their then-current states: "I was most impressed by a feeling, internal and external, of being immediately crushed. The battered walls sunk into the ground gave this small blockhouse a solid base; a dune had invaded the interior space, and the thick layer of sand over the wooden floor made the place ever narrower. Some clothes and bicycles had been hidden here; the object no longer made the same sense, though there was still protection here."