AR: Jugaad can no doubt be inspirational, but it is also often seen as temporary, make-shift design. What kind of long-term solutions can it provide?

KA: Jugaad solutions are inherently fluid. They are more like markers of urban conditions rather than final solutions. However, sometimes they emerge as elegant solutions because they come from people who grapple with issues on a daily basis - the city is truly their lab.

The long term solutions are in terms of the environment. Small interventions such as solar lighting or smokeless chulhas, or the use of urban debris and discarded materials to make building material from waste, can have a large impact in cleaning up the urban environment.

Jugaad also helps to rethink how to creatively use tight urban spaces, and with a growing population it helps to think ahead of such densities. It can make us think more carefully about scale, and urbanism as we know it, beyond mega projects to “infra” projects or works that explore the city as a series of different layers of urbanisms.