Considering that we allowed the mixed use only in the notified walled area as a special provision in the Master plan of Delhi-1981 in 1962, which was followed by a much liberalised criteria proposed in the revised 2001 Plan. Also as per MPD 2001 specific areas were identified in the different Zonal Plan- 2001 it becomes necessary to study the change in the policies and norms over the time.
2.1 Introduction (Mixed Land Use)
Till 1990 a number of residential areas were intruded by commercial activity, this led to the formulation of policy of mixed use, considering its environmental impact and socio-economic need of the society.
Policy of Mixed Use was formulated on the basis of following concepts:
Mixed Land Use will enable small entrepreneurs, professionals, artisans, etc. to carry on their vocations in their homes without having to compete in the commercial land market. It will also cut down unnecessary commuting to work centres. Apart from generating additional income, official recognition of mixed land use will put a stop to illegal and unauthorized change of land use.
2.2 Studies Done While Revising First Master Plan
At the time of revising the first master plan the studies and surveys carried out for residential developments bring out the following facts which proved that the formulation of policy of mixed use is necessary:
The census of mixed use activities indicated that there was larger extent of mixed use in Rehabilitation plotted housing (including resettlement housing, village housing which is to the extent of about 12% as compared to 1.7% in Group housing and 2% in regular residential plotted areas developed after 1962)
Most of the families involved in Mixed Use were of lower and low-middle income group. In rehabilitation plotted housing it is about 89% and a little higher in resettlement housing.
Mixed Land Use in case of lower income communities was mainly in the form of retail shops for immediate needs of the community while in case of higher income groups it is mainly for professional consultancy and other offices. In rehabilitation plotted housing, retail shops and service shops are around 85% whereas it is 10% in plotted housing developed after 1962. Mixed Land Use was mainly in owned houses. The survey findings have revealed that the percentage of mixed use in owned houses is about 82% in rehabilitation plotted areas.
Mixed Use activity was mainly carried out on the ground floor which is above 90% in any type of residential development.
The surveys have revealed that mixed use was very prominent in the form of linear commercial development, which amounts to about 75% of the total authorised and unauthorised shopping.
2.3 Policies on Mixed Land Use (MPD-2001)
As per the master plan 2001; on a single premise or in an area, mixed residential and non- residential activity is recommended to be dealt in the following manner:
Central old built-up areas (which actually have a tradition of mixed land use) should be dealt differently than other areas. Mixed land use should be permitted selectively, carefully taking into consideration its community need, provision of traffic and parking which would be generated. In case of new developments, planned mixed residential and non-residential activity should be introduced right at the time of the preparation of the layout plans.
2.4 Development Code - Mixed Land Use Regulations (MPD-2001)
Identification of streets/area for permitting mixed use activity:
At the time of preparation of Zonal Plans, in areas other than the Walled City, Karol Bagh and other Urban renewal areas, streets of mixed use activity shall be identified by:
Conducting a traffic study to see whether after permission of mixed use activity, there will be no adverse effect in the traffic circulation in that area/street. There should be an ev aluation of its impact on the municipal services and environmental needs of the area.
Mixed use permitted in a street/area should be subjected to the following conditions:
The commercial activity allowed shall be only on the ground floor, to the extent of 25% or 50sqm, whichever is less. The establishment shall be run only the resident of the dwelling unit. Following activities shall not be allowed:
- Retail Shops - Building materials, firewood, coal
- Repair Shops - Automobiles repair, cycle rickshaw repair, tyre resorting, battery charging
- Service Shops - Flour mills (more than 3kw power load), fabrication and welding
- Nursing Home
- Guest house, Boarding House and Lodging House
- Storage, go down and warehousing
- Manufacturing units
- Junk Shop
Professional Activity: Professional activity shall be allowed in residential plots and flats on any floor on the following condition; Part of the premises shall be permitted to be used up to a maximum of 25% of FAR or 100 square meters Whichever is less, for non residential but non nuisance activities for rendering service based on professional skills.
2.5 Intended Mixed Land Use
At the time of layout preparation of a residential area, clusters of plot shall be reserved for intended mixed use for shops and household industries at ground floor and the residence on the remaining floors.
2.6 Additions/Alterations in the Development Code (MPD-2021)
The plots reserved for intended mixed use shall face 18 meters. ROW roads and above with common Parking areas to be earmarked in the layout plans. The commercial activity is allowed to the 100% of the ground floor coverage. The following activities may be permitted within a residential premise on plot of a minimum of size of 209 square meters. (160 square meters. in Special Area, villages and Rehabilitation Colonies.) Facing a minimum road width of 18 meters ROW (13.5 meters. in Rehabilitation Colonies and 9 meters. in 'Special Area' and villages).
- Pre-primary school (Nursery/Montessori School, Crèche etc.)
- Nursing home
- Guest house
- Fitness Centre (Gymnasium, yoga, meditation centre)
Banquet Halls which do not cause hindrance to the general public and provide for parking can be permitted on mixed use streets, where commercial activity is permissible, subject to the following conditions:
Banquet Hall shall be permitted in residential and commercial use zones with a minimum plot size of 333 square meters, facing minimum 18 metres, right of way of roads (13.5 metres in Rehabilitation Colonies and 9 metres in Special Area).
No framework for monitoring is given for mixed use in MPD-2001, while MPD-2021 gives the following framework for the monitoring of mixed land use: Component of monitoring - No. of mixed land use streets Period of monitoring - 1 Year
Phase wise Description - As per Zonal Development Plans