In this chapter, we shall focus on the analysis of the consequences of slum demolitions at the local level, as experienced by the affected households (i.e. the first “actors from below” to be considered in the local system of actors — cf. Chapter 6), and shall examine the effects on their living conditions as well as the coping strategies that they deploy. To that end, we first need to examine the conditions of local implementation of slum clearance or redevelopment policies and their exclusion effects.

In India and Brazil, like elsewhere, available studies and research as regards the effects of slum demolition on the evicted families focus more on analysing those in the context of the various rehabilitation and resettlement programmes, whereas specific investigations targeting the people excluded from these programmes — the “outcasts”, so to speak — are lacking in academic studies. Part of the SETUP (Social Exclusion, Territories and Urban Policies) research work conducted in Delhi and Mumbai aimed at contributing to this area of study, by assessing to what extent and through which mechanisms the definition and then implementation of squatter settlement removal policies in the two largest Indian cities have contributed to the further impoverishment of already vulnerable families by excluding them from rehabilitation or resettlement programmes, and turning them into homeless or “ urban nomads”.

In this chapter, we shall therefore give particular attention to those urban outcasts; nonetheless, for a comprehensive understanding of the effects of slum clearance and redevelopment policies, the condition of households excluded from resettlement and rehabilitation programmes shall be confronted with that of beneficiaries. This analysis will be detailed in the context of Delhi and Mumbai, and supplemented by a comparative perspective with selective illustrations from Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo.