The changes in the existing scenario due to a large number of self-financing institutions of Architectural Education were prominently highlighted at these venues. Among other issues, new thrust areas in academics, intake and quality of entrants and their teachers, physical infrastructure and financing of private institutions were discussed through technical papers presented by teachers, practicing architects, academicians and managers of private colleges. Large number of Papers were presented at the above mentioned locations. The Nagpur Centre of IIA undertook the task of collecting, analysing and evaluating the views expressed in these Papers. The diverse views of authors were formatted through a matrix so that a consensus in their view could be obtained. Huge amount of time and effort on the part of a Committee of the Nagpur Centre has resulted into a document, which is very comprehensive, radically different, fresh and futuristic. References were made to similar documents of the Institution of Engineers, Medical Council, AICTE and the COA Regulations on Architecture Education. Documents of the Royal Institute of British Architects were also referred. It is of course, not an ultimate statement. But with due modesty, it embodies the collective view of all those concerned with architectural education and brings out the encapsulated wisdom of all.

Observations and Comments:

At the Intake level, students from other streams along with PCM category have been rendered eligible. This is primarily to eliminate entry into architecture out of a “no other option” criterion or simply to refrain the spill – over section of students from engineering branch, to join architecture out of sheer frustration

A recognised Aptitude Test shall be the sole criterion for admitting students. This has been done with the idea of being able to locate creativity and other related abilities and attributes that have been identified as prerequisite for a candidate seeking admission to architecture course. The objective being not only academic excellence but also inculcating abilities leading to successful practice.

The duration has been fixed at five academic years split into three distinct stages with specific objectives. A fair amount of intensification of the course has been achieved by condensing most of the theoretical inputs in Stage 1, and carving out a full year for practical training as Stage 2. Space is also created in Stage 3 for diversification and upgradation, and continuing on the Elective Design, the preliminary work on which begins in Stage 2, while the students are still under going practical training.

The course structures in Stages 1 and 3 have been realigned to form three clear-cut streams. The central Core stream draws well timed and relevant inputs from the two support streams namely the Technology stream and the Humanities stream. The role of electives in both the stages is defined clearly. In Stage 1 cross electives shall be designed in order to bring students from mixed backgrounds to a common platform for learning and understanding a process referred to as that of “normalising”. In Stage 3 electives serve the purpose of providing a specialised knowledge and information base for the selected specialisation module.

While framing the norms for creating a good team of teachers to impart quality education in the field of architecture, it has been recognised that the visiting faculty brings value addition with the necessary practical angle to the learning process. Thus, concepts and theories get verified or disproved, thereby training students to think and question them more frequently and relate them to live situations. To cater to this aspect of further enrichment the Paper strongly recommends a larger two-tiered i.e. Honorary and Contributory, team of visiting faculty.

For the Full-time faculty an incentive package for growth and career development has been designed in the form of Efficiency Bars linked to performance. A teacher’s output and academic performance will now be assessed periodically. An ambitious and committed teacher can expedite his/her natural growth process within an institution, which is normally linked to age and/or years of experience in teaching, by crossing these bars prematurely, through good performance on a perpetual basis. Teaching Load and Work Load have been defined separately to reiterate the importance of extension work, reading, research, professional competence all of which will serve as indicators of his/her performance when evaluated at a given efficiency bar. The teacher can make a trade-off between a path leading to mediocrity through average performance and routine promotions, or the one that reaches the level of excellence through self-development.

The proposal de-links an institution’s capacity to provide quality education from the ownership of infrastructure facilities in the form of large built-up areas. It recognises that quality is more a function of the type of expertise available with an institution through a powerful human resource base. Hence, infrastructure is “owned”, “provided”, “shared” or simply “accessible” depending on the priority and hierarchy of needs, frequency of use, possibility of use by intelligent scheduling and the availability of high order facilities within the city at close proximity. A drastic reduction in capital investment needed to start a new school could in future attract a larger number of the "academically inclined" category of people with vision to venture into serious education, rather than the “commercially inclined” category.

The Document boldly deals with several issues related to Migration being permissible within rules, Faculty positions in full Full- time staff, Full-time plus Part-time staff and Core full-time plus visiting staff. It discusses the ratio of full-time cadres, their qualifications and experience and career advancement through efficiency bars. The Visiting Faculty in two-tiers is expected to provide a value addition to curricular teaching.

Through various Sections the Document details out–

  • Conduct of Aptitude Test and Admission Protocol
  • Course Structure of the Stages
  • Categories, Qualifications, Appointments and Career development opportunities for Staff
  • Calculation of Teaching Load and distribution
  • Work Load for Full time staff including administrative and extra-curricular duties, personal consultancy and development
  • Physical facilities and other infrastructure separately for independent institutions and Departments in Engineering Colleges
  • Examinations and appointment of valuers.

Various Subjects of study that form the contents of the stages have been identified. Many subjects of traditional importance have been retained. While subjects of contemporary and futuristic content have been included. It will be up to the competent authorities/institutions to frame appropriate syllabi with regional biases and faculty resources within the stated objectives for each subject.


  1. Sections 1 to 8 provide full detail of the highlights in Synopsis
  2. This Document was presented at the18th National Convention of Indian Institute of Architects, held at Aurangabad on December 24, 2OO1
  3. This Document has been prepared by Prof. S.A.Deshpande, Ar. P.S.Ahuja and Ar. Chandra Sabnani on behalf of Nagpur Centre of IIA.

Section 1: Aptitude Test


This framework is designed to assist those in charge of designing and implementing the process of admissions.

It puts forward a set of abilities or competencies that are generally agreed to be conducive to becoming a competent young architectural professional, and proposes alternate ways to test them. Admissions can be carried out at the level of individual autonomous schools, states, or may be conducted nationally.

Testing may be done by the agencies themselves or in collaboration with or even delegated to appropriate academic professionals or statutory agencies, on an individual, consortium or national basis. Even if done independently, comparability of testing and grading patterns is strongly recommended for comparison, modification and calibration of the admissions process.

It is widely accepted that the competencies of a young architect at heir minimum level should include:

  • Preparing the detailed brief about the project based on discussions with the client.
  • Generating alternative design ideas in accordance to the brief
  • Detailing the combination of ideas including those preferred by the client into approval and working drawings.
  • Integrating inputs from other professionals at design and construction stages with due regard to time, cost and quality.

The admission process thus aims to ensure that entrants to an architectural course have the necessary base upon which further development can take place during and just after education to handle the above tasks reasonably well. While this criterion is qualitative, it can be easily broken into measurable components which can be easily and flawlessly combined using commonly available computers and a little bit of specially designed software.

What is aptitude?

  • An aptitude or ability is that combination of knowledge and skills, which provides the potential to undertake a simple task successfully.
  • A competency consists of a cluster of aptitudes along with attitudes, which together predict that a person is likely to accomplish a complex task successfully.
  • For a given task, the competencies needed to play a role successfully may be classified as critical or desirable.
  • Further, competencies or their components may be classified as those which can be developed:
    • (E) Easily during the course of or after architectural education (due to the inherent nature of the course).
    • (P) Possible with a fair degree effort by the individual or the institution through orientation, remedial or bridge programs and/or syllabus orientation.
    • (D) With great difficulty, if at all

Thus, competencies that are critical as also inherent at the pre-entry stage should be used for elimination, and all others for selection. The competencies, which a successful young architect needs, are set out below:

  Competency Rationale Importance Nature
1 General intelligence To Handle verbal, quantitative and abstract data effectivley C D
2 Spatial/mechanical To Visualize interrelationships of various elements of a design C D
3 Emotional intelligence To handle working relationships with clients and team members D D
4 Aesthetic sense To instinctively seperate good and bad designs C P
5 Desterity To handle drawing, sketching, model making C P
6 General Knowledge To keep designs contemporary D E
7 Creativity To generate large numbers of design ideas C P
8 Achievement/Motivation To cope with stresses during and after education by derieving intrinsic pleasure out of design solutions D P
9 Problem Solving ability To sysnthesise ideas into workable solutions through perseverance and iteration C E
10 Language skills To prepare and present good briefs, proposals, presentations, compliance notes, project reports and other oral/written material C P
11 Nuerical skills To undertake preliminary analysis, design simple structures and BOQ's/estimates C P
12 Commercial orientation To handle organisational, financial and marketing aspects of practice D E
13 Computer Literacy To use contemporary technology effectively for designing, presentation, communication and commercial aspects C E

Tools and Techniques for locating aptitude

Sample test items wherever in this document or other texts should be treated as merely indicative.

  1. Intelligenceis the ability to reason effectively and efficiently in a linear manner. The well recognized mode of testing intelligence is through multiple choice items in time pressure tests with items containing verbal data, numerical data and abstract data.
    • Verbal data (analogies, comprehension and sentence completion)
    • Numerical data (arithmetical, geometrical, algebraic and statistical)
    • Abstract data (verbal, numerical or pictorial series and sequences)
    Examples of such tests may be obtained from self-study material for competitive exams. Care shall be taken not to use material drawn from exams to be taken around or after graduation, such as GRE, GMAT, CAT, MAT, PO, UPSC etc. Exams, which can be taken in or after high or higher secondary school, such as IQ tests, SAT, UGAT, NDA, SSB, bank clerk etc. will provide models that are more suitable.Past academic performance say 10th and 12th standard exams, is also a reasonably acceptable predictor of this aspect, at least for cut off purposes. The best approach is to combine data from these two sources.
  2. Spatial / mechanical ability: This consists of abilities to observe, remember and reproduce visual elements in complex patterns, and to integrate visual elements into complex patterns. Both these aspects should be separately tested. Elements from existing, architectural admissions tests can be used to advantage for the purpose. Spot the differences between the two pictures, types of puzzles which appear in many newspapers and magazines would also test the same ability.
    N.B.: This ability should not be tested by asking applicants to draw, sketch or create models, since the result would also be affected by aesthetic sense and dexterity.
  3. Emotional intelligence:This, measured in terms of EQ (Emotional Intelligence Quotient) is recognized to be even more important for professional success than IQ. EQ may be measured through:
    • Psychological instruments (multiple choice tests)
    • Projective tests such as TAT (thematic apperception test)
    • Patterned / focussed behavioral event, interviews.
    • Group discussions on emotionally controversial topics
    • Strong involvement in group activities in the past as reflected in the application blank
    Being a specialized field, help in this matter can be sought from the psychology department of a local college / university / management institute or a practicing psychologist / HRM consultant.
  4. Aesthetic Sense: (partially inborn) is the ability to perceive harmony or the lack of it in form proportion, color combination, textures etc. While there are some psychological instruments to measure it, in view of the inherent expertise of architectural schools in this field, a good alternative may be to ask applicants to react to a series of objects or images in a structured or unstructured fashion. While the former is faster and easier to assess, the latter lends depth and permits simultaneous testing of verbal abilities. A combination the two approaches could also be used. Each school can make this trade-off for themselves.
    N.B.: This ability should not be tested, by asking applicants to draw / sketch / create models since the result would also be affected by spatial sense and dexterity.
  5. Dexterity: This may be tested by asking applicants to do simple object drawing, water colour painting of pre drawn pictures, paper folding etc. Those who have passed official drawing exams or a relevant vocational stream at the + 2 stage, or other well documented evidence of dexterity, could if so desired, be exempted from this component, or be given extra credit in the assessment. Both freehand as also geometric drawing (with instruments) can and should be used.
  6. General Knowledge: This may be tested upon the same lines as intelligence related material in item no: 1 above.
  7. Creativity:There are psychological instruments, which measure potential for and blocks to creativity. A simple and reliable way to test it is to ask applicants to generate lists of uses for common objects in a given time (rice, sticks, shoes, mirror, bricks, cupboard, lipstick etc.) These ideas can be scored for fluency, flexibility and originality as described below.
    • A non-pressure reflective test of creativity is useful for measuring synthesis. It can be given in the form of an open ended situation to which multiple unknown responses are possible, which the applicants are asked to generate, evaluate, and recommend. e.g.
    • (What will you do if ---?) This also tests problem-solving abilities. A combination of both methods should be used. Psychological tests can help to assess the reasons in case of low creativity as measured by the above tests.
    • They would throw up the existence or otherwise of any of the well-known psychological blocks to creativity. Such applicants would get lower scores than those whose low creativity results simply from the absence of past demands for the purpose, since the latter is far easier to remedy during architectural education than the former
  8. Achievement motivation: This can be tested along the same lines as emotional intelligence in item No: 3 above. A consistently good record of accomplishment in past academic and extra-curricular performance can also be a good guide for the purpose, especially when used in combination.
  9. Problem solving ability: Intelligence, EQ, creativity and achievement motivation is together good indicators of problem solving abilities in the absolute sense. However, whether these abilities will actually result in the individual solving problems be strongly determined by the behavioral mind set with respect to recognizing, confronting and tackling problems. These can be tested along the same lines as emotional intelligence and achievement motivation in items no: 3 & 8 above.
  10. Verbal abilities: This can be assessed through open ended questions on the application blank, essay writing, on the spot, and language marks during the past academic career.
  11. Numerical abilities: This can be assessed through mathematical aspects of intelligence in item No: 1 above, as also by performance in quantitative subjects during the past academic career.
  12. Commercial Orientation: This can be assessed based on applicant’s socio-economic background. It can also be checked through projective tests or patterned interviews as explained in item no. 3 above.
  13. Computer Literacy: This can be checked based on self-reporting in the application blank, competency certificates from recognized bodies, written tests, multiple choice, interviews and hands-on demonstrations. A trade-off between reliability and ease of administration needs to be made.

Set up of a Typical Admissions Protocol

The typical stages of an admission procedure would be:

  1. Information dissemination:
    • To various official and professional bodies in every January for further circulation through their channels, and
    • Through the printed, electronic, computer media in March, announcing modalities dates and fees for acquisition of forms, testing and screening admissions etc.
  2. Preparation and reproduction of application (brochures, forms, test data and bulletins) kits in February, to deal with inquiries in response to the information dissemination.
  3. Preparation and scrutiny of testing instruments and data processing software in March
  4. Receipt, preliminary screening of application blanks and dispatch of testing letters to applicants in April.
  5. Elimination test in May (single day).
  6. election test (if need be) in June (single day).
  7. Admissions and (if a system of provisional admissions is instituted) remedial / orientation / bridge programs in July.
  8. Commencement of regular classes in August.

Elimination and Selection Framework

Irrespective of the classification of the 13 abilities listed above, those which are mainly to be developed during the course, or for which most applicants are likely to have roughly similar achievement levels, need not be tested at all. The remaining abilities are to be short-listed. Once this classified short list is ready, the admissions should be done in two phases - rejection and selection.

This decision can be based initially upon the judgement of teachers, eventually backed up by suitably modified tests administered to existing students of architecture, at various stages of their career. This process is likely to stabilize over 2-3 years, especially if various competent authorities and testing agencies share their experiences.

The first phase should be one of rejection, where the screening process should attempt to reliably eliminate most marginal applicants. They comprise of those who are unlikely to complete a rigorous course of studies successfully, or after doing so, are unlikely to become competent professionals or academics.

The rejection criterion should be that all applicants with more than one deficiency in a critical area or more than 3 deficiencies overall should be eliminated. This should be adhered to even if there is an overall shortage of applicants with respect to the seats available for the purpose. Such elimination may be either one-shot or progressive, depending upon the local situation.

E.g.: The minimum marks in the 10th /12th examinations may be specified in the basic eligibility criteria (branch wise or other wise). It is possible to assess forms before admitting applicants to the pen / pencil and paper tests. Such tests themselves may be in phases if so desired, and finally the preliminary tests can, if needed, be used as a screening device before advanced tests, group discussions and / or personal interviews.

Each segment of the assessment process should be graded on a five-point scale:

  2. – GOOD > 3 MARKS
  4. – AVERAGE > 1 MARK
  5. – POOR > 0 MARKS

These grades may be arrived at directly in the case of quantitative data, or through creation of ranges of scores in case of qualitative data. The purpose of using grades is to focus attention on the basic levels of each ability, rather than minor differences, which could depend upon chance, subjectivity, error and other external factors.

If, after elimination, the number of applicants in a particular category (as defined by the concerned authority) is more than the seats available for it, a merit list should be prepared on the following basis by successive computerised sorting of short-listed applicants on the basis of:

  1. Number of deficiencies in critical areas
  2. Number of deficiencies overall
  3. Number of strengths in critical areas
  4. Number of strengths overall
  5. Weighted Average score in critical areas
  6. Weighted Average score overall
  7. Marks in areas in which grades have been primarily derived from quantitative raw data

The indicative deficiency and strength levels for various competencies are set out below:

  Name Deficiency Ceiling Strength Floor
1 General intelligence C A
2 Spatial/Mechanical ability D B
3 Emotional intelligence D B
4 Aesthetic sense D B
5 Dexterity C A
6 General knowledge D A
7 Creativity C A
8 Achivement / Motivation D B
9 Problem solving ability D B
10 Language skills E B
11 Numerical skills E B
12 Commercial orientation E C
13 Computer literacy E B

Variations and Latitudes

The rejection round would, at the minimum, consist of tests of general intelligence and dexterity, both of which are considered:

  • C - critical to a young architect on one hand, and
  • D - difficult to develop during an architectural education.

These form the core of the elimination round. In case the competent authority considers any other parameter to be both critical for success and difficult to develop, it too may be added to the core. It is normally desirable to include applicants in the selection process numbering thrice the seats available through the competent authority. It may happen that based on the elimination rounds the number of applicants falls below this minimum, overall or for a particular category (reservations, paid seats etc.). If so, the number of applicants to be called for the selection round(s) can be less than thrice the number of seats available in the concerned category.

However most of the time it may happen that the number of applicants clearing the core elimination round are more than thrice the number of seats available. Under these circumstances, a supplementary elimination round is to be resorted to.

This supplementary round will consist of tests administered along with the core elimination tests, for parameters, which are either:

  • (C & P) Critical for success and possible to develop with some effort, or
  • (D & D) Desirable for success and very difficult to develop during architectural education.

The parameters falling into these two categories are:

  1. Spatial/ mechanical ability
  2. Emotional intelligence
  3. Aesthetic sense
  4. Creativity
  5. Language skills
  6. Numerical skills

The competent authority can choose a suitable number and combination from among these parameters for testing during the supplementary elimination round.

The tests to be used for these parameters for the purpose of both core and supplementary elimination should inevitably be pen / pencil and paper tests. Cross-checking of these parameters can, if needed, be done by oral assessment during the selection round, which would follow.

Data about many of these parameters can often be derived from a well-designed application blank, to which careful thought should be given. Since the results of 12th / equivalent form part of the minimum eligibility criteria, these need to be integrated into the elimination round. Thus the elimination round can be held shortly before the 12th exams and its results announced soon thereafter, with adequate lead-time for applicants to submit copies of their mark-sheets before invitations to appear for the selection round are mailed.

The data from elimination rounds can and should subsequently be used for selection purposes too. Supplementary rigorous assessment of the same parameters (if needed), and assessment of the other parameters from scratch will be undertaken during the selection round.

The competent authority, may at this stage, add competencies to the list already set out, which in its opinion, are very important for architectural practice in its regional context. It is possible and desirable to give different weightages to different competencies during the selection stage. The suggested initial ratio is 3: 2: 1 for competencies for core elimination: supplementary elimination: remaining ones on the list respectively.

This may however be, marginally changed after 2-3 years, based on scientific validation of various components of the admissions process. The competent authority should also actively explore the possibility of having separate merit lists for applicants from different educational and geographical backgrounds, to enrich architecture education through classroom heterogeneity.

Section 2: Course Structure - Stage 1

Objectives of the Stage 1

  1. At the entry level students with diverse background need to be ‘normalised’ so that uniformity in their involvement can be achieved. This is done through Cross Electives.
  2. Acquisition of technical skills and knowledge relevant to the design of moderately complex buildings are handled in the Core Subjects
  3. Creating a Theoretical base provided by the Technology and Humanities Streams to flow into the Core Stream
  4. Provide a reasonable latitude (about 18% of available time) for institutions to incorporate the regional / cultural / technical influences of their environment
  5. Prepare the students to the demands of the Stage 2
  6. Successful completion of Stage 1 may lead to award of a suitable interim qualification

Duration of Stage 1

6 Semesters X 16 weeks/Sem X 40 Hours/Week = 3840 – 960 (latitude) = 2880 Hours

Streams and Subjects of Study

CORE 50%
T.S1.08 THEORY OF STRUCTURES A            
T.S1.09 CLIMATOLOGY A            
T.S1.13 WORKING DRAWING A            
T.S1.14 BUILDING SYSTEMS              

NOTE: E = Evaluation by Competent Authority A = Assessment by Internal / External Teachers

Section 3: Course Structure - Stage 2 (Practical Training)

Objective of Stage 2

  1. Application and verification of Technical Skills and Theory acquired in Stage 1.
  2. Close quarter observation and study of the practical process
  3. Documentation of practical experience
  4. Utilisation of personal time for reading assignment, study of local architecture etc.
  5. Data collection and concept formation for Elective Design

Framework of the Training Programme

  1. Duration of Stage 2 shall be 1 Year, i.e 52 weeks, after the end of Stage 1, out of which atleast 36 weeks shall be spent in an approved Training Place, ie. Architect’s Office.
  2. A Trainee may spend not more than 6 weeks at a Learning Centre of his/her choice engaging in any allied field such as manufacture, performing art, journalism, engineering, contracting, etc. 6 more weeks shall be spent in finalising the area / topic / subject for Elective Design in Stage 3. Necessary Case Studies shall be done during this time.
  3. Balance of the time, ie. 52 – 48 = 4 weeks may may be spent as Vacation prior to Stage 3.

Documentation of the Training Programme

  1. A Trainee shall maintain proper record of his/her time. It shall be authenticated / certified by the Training Office from time to time or as may be prescribed by the Institution.
  2. An Institution shall provide the necessary Log Book / Diary for use by the Trainee.
  3. Copies of drawing / detailing work done by a Trainee shall be obtained with due permission and certified by the Office.

Reporting and Evaluation of the Training Experience

  1. A Trainee shall report to the Institution and remain physically present at the end of the Training to give a Seminar on his/her Training Programme.
  2. A Trainee shall also visit his/her Guide at the Institution at least once in the remaining period to finalise the scope of work related to Elective Design / Seminar / Book Review etc.
  3. Assessment of the work done in this Stage shall be periodically done internally by the Institution upto 50% of the weightage of marks and further Evaluation to be done by a Jury consisting of Practicing Architects appointed by the Competent Authority.


  1. Eligibility for Stage 2 shall be the completion of all academic / sessional requirements prescribed for Stage 1.
  2. An Institution may form a special cell of Teachers to assist a student in selecting a training place
  3. A Teacher / Guide may visit a particular Training Place to supervise the work or to interact with the Trainer.

Section 4: Course Structure - Stage 3

  1. Incorporate and synthesise achievements in Stage 1 and 2
  2. Develop understanding and direction to further studies through Elective Design
  3. Establish goals for future career
  4. Understand the inclusive role of Design

Duration of Stage 3:

2 Semesters X 16 weeks X 40 hours/week = 1280 – 320 (latitude) = 960 Hours

Streams and Subjects of Study:

Technology 30%   Core 50%   Humanities 18%  
Code Subject E/A Code Subject E/A Code Subject E/A
      C.S3.01 Elective Design A      
T.S3.01 Advance Construction Techniques E C.S3.02 Practice and Project Management A H.S3.01 Critical Appreciation E
T.S3.02 Computer Programming E C.S3.03 Tropical Architecture and Appropriate Technology A H.S3.02 Architectural Pedagogy E
T.S3.03 Behaviour of Structures E C.S3.04 Interior Design & Landscape Architecture A H.S3.03 Professional Practice & Legislation E


  1. Students shall have successfully completed all academic and examination requirements prescribed for the Stage 1 and Stage 2
  2. Students are required to select any one Specialization Module

Section 5: Teaching Staff: Categories, Qualifications, Appointment and Career Developments

Statement showing the Designation, Pay scale, Qualifications and Experience prescribed for Faculty Positions

 DesignationPay scaleQualifications / Experience
1 Lecturer in Architecture As per AICTE/CoA Norms With Efficiency Bars* First Class Bachlor in Architecture or a Qualification equivalent thereto with a minimum of 3 years of Professional Experience after Registration OR a Master's Degree in Architecture or a related field of study with at least 1 year Professional / Research experience after Registration with a First Class at B.Arch or an equivalent qualification
2 Lecturer in Structures as at Sr.No.1 First Class Master's Degree in Civil / Structural Engineering (M.E. / M.Tech) with at least 3 years of practical experience in structural design or in supervision of construction
3 Lecturer in Humanities as per UGC norms First Class Master's Degree in Economics / Social Science / English / History with at least 3 Years of teaching expereince at U.G. level OR Ph.D Degree in a relevant field with 1 year teaching experience with published work
4 Lecturer in Art as at Sr.No.1 First Class Master's Degree in Art (MFA) with specialisation in Applied Art / Photography / sculpture / Painting with at least 3 years of teaching expereince at UG level in an Art Institution or acknowledged professional work
5 Assistant Professor /
Reader in Architecture
as at Sr.No.1 Master's Degree in Architecture or a related field of study with a minimum of 5 years of Teachine / Research / Professional Practice after Registration with a First Class at B.Arch or an equivalent qualification. Ph.D in Architecture or a related field will be preferred
6 Assistant Professor /
Reader in Structures
as at Sr.No.1 First Class Masters Degree in Civil / Structural Engineering (M.E. / M.Tech) and Ph.D Degree in relavent Specialisation with atleast 5 years of expereince in teaching / research / practice and acknowledged publications
7 Professor of Architecture as at Sr.No.1 Master's Degree in Architecture or a related field with 10 years of expereince in Teachine / Research / Practice after Registration of which at least 3 years shll be in teaching, with a First Class at B.Arch or an equivalent qualification. Candidates with Ph.D Degree in a related field will be given a preference
8 Head of Department /
Principal / Dean /
as at Sr.No.1 same as Sr.No.7 but with additional 2 years expereince in administration. Candidates with Ph.D Degree in a related field will be given prefrence

Full-Time Faculty Career Development

Pay scales for Lecturers in Architecture / Structures and Assistant Professors / Readers in Architecture / Structures shall include 3 Efficiency Bars (E B ) suitably placed in the time scales of each category. Clearing each of the EB will entitle the incumbents to draw 3 additional increments in their respective basic salary as an incentive. A Committee appointed by the Competent Authority every 3 years or as required shall do evaluation of such teachers.

Efficiency Bars for the Lecturers

E B – 1: Developing good Communication Skills. Shall have attended atleast one Continuing Education Programme.

E B – 2: Candidates shall have presented atleast two Papers at a recognised Seminar or written and published atleast two articles in Professional Journals or regional Newspapers.

E B – 3: Candidates must have actively participated in the various programmes of the Institution or in Curriculum Development or in Professional work.

Efficiency Bars for Assistant Professors / Readers

E B – 4: Candidates must have published atleast four Articles / Projects in a Professional Journal or Magazine or written and presented atleast two Papers at Regional / National level Seminar / Conference. He / She shall have engaged in a Research Programme approved by the Institution.

E B – 5: Candidates must have obtained National recognition in terms of being invited for Expert lectures or being co-opted on Academic Bodies of other Institutions.

E B – 6: Candidates must have written a book or published a Monograph relevent to Architecture or a related field and must have undertaken a research Project or recognisable professional work. He / She must have presented atleast one Paper at an International Conference / Seminar or the Paper shall have been duly accepted for such presentation.

Visiting Faculty

HONORARY VISITING FACULTY: A Senior professional with 20 years of experience and with good communication skills. He / She should have local recognition with sizeable Projects to credit or he may be a well-known retired Academic.

CONTRIBUTORY VISITING FACULTY: A professional with 10 years of experience and good communication skills.

Non-Teaching Staff

An Institution shall have adequate non-teaching / supporting staff for Administrative and maintenance work. Junior level technical staff for carrying out duties and assignments in the laboratories and workshops shall also be provided.
Local / State level norms for numbers, pay scales, experience may be used.

Section 6: Teaching Load: Calculation, Distribution, Work load and Consultancy norms

Preamble : The ratio between the number of students and teachers is an indicator of the quality of education, especially for Architectural Education. The Core subjects aim at developing the architectural personality and concept formation in the students. Since the creative process in Design is personal and therefore, subjective, teacher – student relation has to be intimate. Adequate number of teachers is therefore, necessary. In the support streams of technology and humanities however,the teacher generally relates to the class as a whole. Calculation of teaching load and the various categories of teachers required to take it up needs to be properly worked out.

Category- wise distribution of Teaching Load

Recommended Teaching Load for Full time Staff

Sl.No. Category of Staff Teaching Load Clock Hours / Week
1. Head / Principal / Director 10
2. Professor 12
3. Asst. Professor / Reader 16
4. Lecturer 19

Calculation of Teaching Load and Virtual Teaching Load

Subject Code Subject of Study Syllabus Load Batches Virtual Load
T.S1.01 TECHNICAL DRAWING 4 hours 3 12
T.S1.03.01 MATHEMATICS 3 hours 1 3
C.S1.01 GRAPHIC DESIGN 8 hours 3 24

Students per Batch >
Stage 1: Theory Class 40 | Tutorial 20 | Studio 15
Stage 3: Theory Class 40 | Tutorial 20 | Studio 10 | Elective Design 05

Suggested Format of Teaching Load Distribution

  1. Total number of Full Time Staff 10 : 1 ( 200 x 1/10 = 20 + 1 = 21 nos.
  2. Teaching Load (TL) 40 h/w x 4 years ( Stage 1 + Stage 3) = 160 hours / week
  3. Virtual Teaching Load (VTL = 1.5 x 16 = 24O hours / week

Example 1

1/3rd Full Time Staff = 7 nos. in the ratio of 1 : 2 : 4 :: P : AP : L
Professor - 12 h/w x 1 no. = 12
Assistant Professor - 16 h/w x 2 nos. = 32
Lecturer - 19 h/w x 4 nos. = 76

Total 7 nos. 120

Honorary 4 h/w 10 nos. = 40
Contributory 8 h/w 10 nos. = 80

Total 20 nos = 120 + 120 = 240

Example 2

2/3rd Full Time Staff = 14 nos. in the ratio of 1 : 2 : 3 :: P : AP : L
Professor - 12 h/w 2 nos. = 24
Assistant Professor - 16 h/w 4 nos. = 64
Lecturer - 19 h/w 6 nos. = 114

Total 12 nos. = 202

Visiting Faculty
Honorary 4 h/w 3 nos. = 12
Contributory 8 h/w 3 nos. = 24

Total 6 nos. = 36 + 202 = 238

Work-Load for the Full-Time Staff

Sr.No. Category Teaching Available Load Activity & Responsibility Work Load
Administrative and Extra-curricular Load
1. Professor 12 h/w 28 h/w Administrative work of the Institution Correspondence with Authorities Preparation of Teaching programmes Developing and involving students in various social / cultural Developing and involving students in programmes various social / cultural programmes
2. Assistant Professor / Reader 16 h/w 24 h/w Assistance in carrying out administrative work and developing links with teachers of other Institutions. Management of teaching schedules and time tables. Preparation of lectures and set-up sessional work. Guidance to Lecturer. Developing and involving students in various social / cultural programmes
3. Lecturer 19 h/w 21 h/w Maintenance of attendance Assisting senior staff in admin. Work,records. Organising the assessment of work Preparation of lectures etc. Participating in extra-curricular activity
Co-curricular and Research Activities
1. Professor     Academic Research in chosen area Writing articles /papers / books etc Developing teaching methods. Professional Consultancy
2. Assistant Professor / Reader     same as above
3. Lecturer     same as above
Professional Consultancy and development
1. Professor     Develop and establish a Professional Consultency Cell Frame Rules, Regulations and Remuneration Arrange Seminars on related topics and develop public relation
2. Assistant Professor / Reader     same as above
3. Lecturer     Participate and fully involve in these activities.

Section 7: Infrastructure & Physical Facilities: Academic, Administrative & Amenities

  1. An Institution shall as far as possible be autonomous
  2. The academic area of an autonomous institution shall consist of class rooms / seminar rooms, studios, computer centre, library, laboratories and activity areas for model making etc.
  3. The Administrative area of an autonomous institution shall consist of faculty rooms, meeting rooms and office space.
  4. The amenity area of an autonomous institution shall consist of a canteen.
  5. The above infrastructure and physical facilities are necessary and shall always be in possession of the institution.
  6. 40 students per class shall be the basic unit considered for providing infrastructure and physical facilities. Thus, physical space, infrastructure and physical facilities for 4O students is equal to 1 Unit. The basic unit shall be split into batches of lesser number of students and infrastructure and physical facilities for Computer Centre, laboratories and activity areas shall be provided considering “batch of Students” as a unit.
  7. An institution may possess / can have access to the following facilities :
    • Academic : Workshops for carpentry, smithy etc., exhibition space, building material laboratory, survey laboratory, materials testing and structures laboratory, seminar hall for total strength of students and faculty, documentation centre with photography studio and dark room, photocopying facility, ammonia printing, binding lamination and storage of students work, Research Centre and room for Visiting Faculty.
    • Amenities : Students Common rooms, Co-operative store, NCC / Physical education, Indoor / Outdoor games, sports, gymnasium, Dispensary and Bank
    • Accomodation : Hostel Facility for students and Residential accomodation for staff.
  8. The above standards shall also apply to Departments of Architecture such as those which are part of Engineering Colleges.
  9. For new institutions infrastructure can be provided in phases. Phase I would cover Stage 1 of the curriculum and Phase II shall cover Stage 2 & 3 of the curriculum. An Institution completing 5 years and more shall have infrastructure covered in both Phase I and Phase II.

Minimum Infrastructure

  Description Provision for Phase I Phase II
1.1 Class Rooms / Seminar 1 Unit with audio visual facility as part of studio or adjacent to it, for lectures technical presentations, discussions and demonstrations. - 1 1
1.2 Studio - with drawing tables, boards, seating Storage space, & pin-up boards for Individual / group work including Drawing, model making, group Discussions and presentations 1 Unit 3 1
1.3 Computer Center – for CAD and drafting, computer access, printing, plotting facilities with easy access.   1 Batch 1 Batch
1.4 Library - with Open Access, catering to growth Total strength 3 Units 1 Unit Reading Room Facility for 1 unit
1.5 Model Making Workshop accessible from Studios appropriate tools, equipments, & necessary materials 1 batch 1 batch  
1.6 Climatology Laboratory appropriate equipment for actual study by experimentation 1 batch 1 batch  
1.7 Construction Yard for outdoor construction activity, experiments by staff/students, demonstrations 1 unit 1 unit  
2.1 Office space for Director/Head of Institution with necessary supporting staff 1 office space 1 office space  
2.2 Faculty Rooms with space for consultation study, writing, evaluation, storage of students work All faculty members All faculty members  
2.3 Meeting Room All faculty members and
students representatives
All faculty members and
students representatives
2.4 Office space for Admin. Staff All staff members All staff members  
3.1 Canteen for students, faculty and Admin. Staff for students, faculty and Admin. Staff  
3.2 Co-op Store for Stationery items and daily needs Appropriate provision Appropriate provision  

Section 8: Examinations and Appointment of Examiners

  1. Evaluation by Competent Authority
    This shall mean an evaluation of a student by a regular written test held by a Competent Authority at least at the end of each Stage and with a duration of minimum 3 hours question paper.
  2. Subjects and Appointment of Examiners
    Competent Authority for this purpose shall appoint 1 internal and 1 external paper setter and examiner per subject, who shall jointly set the paper. None of internal / external paper setter and examiner shall have less than 3 years of teaching,/ professional,/ research experience after registration with COA.
  3. Assessment by Internal / External Examiners
    This shall mean a joint assessment by a Jury through viva-voce of a student based on his/her regular sessional work completed during a semester and as prescribed in the syllabus.
  4. Subjects and Appointment of Examiners
    • The Competent Authority for this purpose, shall appoint a Jury of minimum 1 internal and 1 external examiner per subject other than Elective Design. No Jury member with less than 5 years of teaching / professional / research experience after Registration with COA shall be appointed.
    • The Competent Authority for the purpose of Assessment of Elective Design completed by a student during the Third and final Stage shall appoint a Jury consisting of minimum 2 internal and 2 external examiners. No Jury member with less than 10 years of teaching / professional / research experience after Registration with COA shall be appointed.

General Notes :

  1. Syllabus of Studies for various subjects shall be prepared by the Institution and approved by the Competent Authority.
  2. An Institution may use the latitude in Teaching load to develop areas of contemporary study and / or emphasise on its Regional context.
  3. Service conditions of Full Time Faculty may have to be within the Rules of the Competent Authority.

The Authors gratefully acknowledge the contribution of all the Members of the Education Committee of Nagpur Centre, Prof VK Paul of SPA and Ar PR Mehta in particular.

National Workshops on the Status and Future of Architectural Education in India were held during late 1998 and early 1999 at the following places.
  • Northern Chapter, New Delhi
  • West Bengal Chapter, Kolkata
  • Gujarat Chapter, Ahmedabad
  • Karnataka Chapter, Bangalore
  • Maharashtra Chapter, Mumbai
  • Nagpur Centre, Nagpur