vol 1:ISBN 81-902816-1-5, 472 p.
vol 1:1a_a >   Pojchara Jatupoj
Sketchboard: The Simple 3D Modeling From Architectural Sketch Recognition
  The main objective of this research was to study freehand architectural sketches and computer algorithms to develop a sketch recognition software and to apply software with basic 3D modeling. This research was conducted by collecting the data of sketch recognition and related software to analyst relevant information and to develop new software that would be practical for architects.
vol 1:1a_b >   B. Senyapili, I. Basa
Reconciling Computer and Hand: The Case of Author ıdentıty ın Design Presentations
  As computers were newly emerging in the field of architectural design, it was claimed that the impact of computers would change the way architects design and present. However, within the course of computer use in design, although the field of architectural practice might have been altered extremely, in architectural education there still seems to be a bond to conventional mind-hand-paper relation. One of the reasons for that bond is the fact that although being related to many technologies, architecture essentially positions itself around an artistic core that is still fed with conventional modes of creation. Architectural education aims at adopting and working on this very core. One of the major contributors in the formation of this core is the presence of author identity. This paper makes a critical approach to computers in terms of expressing author identity in design presentations especially during design education. We believe that the author identity is important in design education in terms of identifying the potential and skills of the student. Especially in design education the final step of design process turns out to be the presentation, unlike architectural practice where the presented design is actually built. Within this conception, two different studies were held in an educational environment with 160 design students and 20 design instructors. The results of both studies pointed at the fact that the digital opportunities that exist for design education should evolve around preserving and underlining the author identity in design presentations.
vol 1:1a_c >   Soo-Hoon Park
Interpretation of Implicit Design Knowledge in Architectural Drawings Into Explicit Knowledge
  This paper concerns a methodology in applying architectural design knowledge to the interpretation of design concepts from architectural drawings. We formalize the design knowledge such that knowledge plays a key role in the design interpretations that map between drawings and their design concepts. We consider this mapping, in general, as those linking between design decision space and design performance space, where design variables in both spaces are examined and categorized from the drawings and concepts. Examinations on drawings are performed based on qualitative shape analysis schemes and we apply feature-based shape analysis techniques to encapsulate those design characteristics in decision space. Interpretations of design concepts through shape characteristics are based on mostly two types of symmetries, namely cyclic and dihedral groups. We use CommonLISP in analyzing shapes in design decision space and CLIPS expert system shell in illustrating simple reasoning based on those design knowledge. We select target drawings from some of Frank Lloyd Wright's block housing plans. In this experiment we try to illustrate a valid methodology that explicitly handles some of the implicit design knowledge hidden in architectural drawings.
vol 1:1a_d >   Seung Yeon Choo, Stefan Hoff, Rye-Hwa Jung
A Design Checking Tool Based on Aesthetic Properties from Design Theories of Architecture: Focused on Musical Harmony in Architecture
  This paper proposes a way how a semantic aesthetic property from architectural theories in the Western world can be integrated into a computer-aided architectural design (CAAD) system. It starts from the premise that computer-aided design tools are mostly aimed at serving as drawing tools which are used only after a design formal solution has already been established by the architect. To support an early design solution in a computer-based environment, a design checking tool was developed and tested in a real building project. This tool gives various design alternatives from the early design phase to the final stage of design details, according to musical harmony. Finally, this paper shows that an aesthetic property from architectural theories can be calculated with the aid of a computerbased design tool, and the used tool played its role as a design assistant in supporting the architectural design.
vol 1:1a_e >   Chor-Kheng Lim, Yu-Tung Liu
New tectonics: New factors in digital spaces
  The issue of tectonics begins discussed in the architectural field since Nineteenth Century. Recently, it becomes a new issue again as the new digital space and the new form appears as a result of the impact by the computer-aid design process. The objective of this research is to explore the preliminary framework of new tectonics in the digital space by analyzing the design cases. We aim to analyze and conclude the digital & non-digital factors in the new tectonics. Subsequently, this research concludes seven non-digital factors: joint, detail, material, object, structure, construction, interaction; and four new digital factors: motion, information, generation and fabrication.
vol 1:1b_a >   Rabee M. Reffat
Collaborative Digital Architectural Design Learning within 3D Virtual Environments
  This paper introduces a collaborative learning approach to digital architectural design within a 3D real-time virtual environment within which students Inhabit, Design, Construct and Evaluate (IDCE) their designs virtually and collaboratively. The paper articulates the development and implementation of the IDCE model utilized within the 3D virtual environment for achieving collaborating digital architectural design learning. The effects of metaphors on constructing architectural designs within virtual environments are addressed.
vol 1:1b_b >   Chien-Hung Shih
Project: Illustrate Your Huashan
  This Project: Illustrate your Huashan attempts to utilize the texture-mapping of characters from the video game industry, as well as real-time graphic in the internet and tablet device of wireless network environment, for the construction of a 3D cyberspace environment that local artists in Huashan could use to freely give expression to their creativity, and for the establishment of a personalized visual space where 3D users can engage in online discussions with collaboration design.
vol 1:1b_c >   Ju-Hung Lan, Mao-Lin Chiu
Information Mining to Enhance Shared Understanding in Collaborative Architectural Design
  This research focuses on how to enhance shared understanding in collaborative design from information point of view. The data mining techniques are applied to discover the design semantic patterns with information classification and association capabilities. A system prototype with an information visualization tool is developed to demonstrate the capability of enhancing shared understanding in collaborative design.
vol 1:1b_d >   M. Bouattour, G.Halin, Jc. Bignon, P. Triboulot
A cooperative model using semantic works dedicated to architectural design
  Architectural cooperative design as well as information modeling have been active research areas for several decades. The use of systems adapted to the cooperative design assistance for the building domain is complex. This results from the complexity of the cooperative work (difficulties in tracking actor's work, lack of most of the required information, coordination problems, implicit nature of most of the construction activities, etc.) The main objective of our research in these domains is to develop a tool that helps the management of a building project and aids cooperative design. So, in the first part of this article, we propose to view the exchanging data mode and cooperation tools in the building domain. The second part of this article illustrates the existing cooperative design models. Then we justify the interest shown in a new model of cooperative design where the relational organization of the project and the semantic meaning of works are taken into account. Finally, we use this new model for defining a design-aided tool, to deduce advantages and limits of the 'Virtual Cooperative Project'.
vol 1:1b_e >   Steve Kuan, Thomas Kvan
Supporting Objects in voxel-based design environments
  Inspired from the idea of using voxels in the conceptual stages of architectural design, a synchronous collaborative design system, CoBlocks, was developed. This paper raises the problem that simply adopting the voxel representations would take voxels as graphic primitives and offer design operations at the voxel level. We introduce the object descriptor to group voxels to form higher-level semantic elements. A test of its efficacy is reported in this paper. The results indicate that the objects facilitated more discussions on high-level design issues and supported more effective design operations. This suggests designers can benefits from the use of objects in voxel-based design environments.
vol 1:2a_a >   Ih-Cheng Lai, Kun-Tai Kao, Teng-Wen Chang
Role Playing for linking Ideas in the Idea Association Process
  Idea association is an interactive behavior that will invoke dynamic interactions through different participants' interplay, especially within the conceptual design stages. Such interplay involves distributed interactions. For understanding the distributed interactions of idea association, the research applies a cognitive theory (role- play) onto modeling the behaviors of designers with internal, external design situation and linking process. By adopting the mechanisms of Dynamic Agent Role Interplay System (DARIS) framework, some computational characteristics within the distributed interactions are explored. Finally, a computer-supported system for dynamically linking design ideas is investigated through a design example.
vol 1:2a_b >   Chieh-Jen Lin
Space layout game: An Interactive Game of Space Layout for Teaching and Representing Design Knowledge
  This paper described a prototype of interactive space layout, a tool for primary stage of architectural space layout called Space Layout Game (SLG). Rather than focused on the automation of space layout, we are interested in interactive responding in manipulative process and assisting teaching and representation of design skills and knowledge. Through composing a prototype of space layouts, reusing and modifying this prototype or other form teachers or other students to adapt to new conditions, students can present their design intensions, and learn layout skills and design knowledge through the manipulative processes
vol 1:2a_c >   Yasunobu Onishi, Homma Riken, Yuji Murakami, Mitsuo Morozumi
Techniques for a Planning Workshop Using A Place Information System
  Planning workshops are known to provide important opportunities for citizen's participation in environmental planning. The digital camera is a convenient tool for such workshops though participants still face difficulties in smooth sharing of information amongst themselves. The authors developed a prototype system for a planning workshop that applies the web-GIS technique, and devised techniques for the system-applied planning workshop through a case study. This paper discusses, first, an assumed procedure for place studies at a planning workshop; second, the functional features of the developed system; third, arrangements for the environment of the workshop; fourth, an experiment of the system use with an urban design workshop in which 91 students participated, forming 16 teams; and finally, assessment of the operational ability of the prototype and necessary refinements for in the next version.
vol 1:2a_d >   Kvan Thomas, Li Weidong
A Computer-Supported Participative Design Jury
  As the design jury changed from closed to open format, it inevitably becomes a learning environment in architectural education. But its educational goal has not been best achieved. A significant problem reported in the literature is that students are not able to participate effectively along the review process. In this research, we conducted a survey to study the local design juries and intend to interpret the survey result by examining the group process losses in conventional design juries. We also discussed the possibility to improve the effectiveness of design juries in terms of increasing students' active participation and learning experience by integrating groupware to support a structured review process.
vol 1:2b_a >   Affleck, Janice, Kvan, Thomas
Reinterpreting virtual heritage
  This paper describes the context and proposal for an alternative approach to the common pattern of application of digital tools in the area of cultural heritage, also know as Virtual Heritage (VH). It investigates and addresses arising issues in a digital case study developed to implement a theoretical framework and investigate how and if existing technology can support it.
vol 1:2b_b >   Sooyeon Oh, Rieko Kadobayashi, Tsuyoshi Sasada, Katsumi Tanaka
Collaborative Project To Conserve and Personalize the 3D Digital Archives of Historical Architecture
  In this paper, we will discuss methods for supporting a collaborative experience of 3D digital archives of historical architecture. We will use a prototype system for 3D digital archives of historical architecture using VR technology. Moreover, a prototype system using web technology such as Weblogs will also be used. In addition, we are refining the present system by applying it to the Turkish Republic Gemiler Island Church Restoration Project.
vol 1:2b_c >   Chiu-Shui Chan, Chien-Hui Weng
How Real Is the Sense of Presence in A Virtual Environment? : Applying Protocol Analysis for Data Collection
  This study attempts to investigate the sense of presence in a fully immersive virtual environment. The methodology applied in this study used protocol analysis for data collection. A preliminary experiment was conducted to explore noticeable phenomena to develop a hypothesis for the final experiments. Four different virtual reality models, representing four different kinds of virtual space, were navigated in C6 (CAVE facilities) by two human subjects. Results of the research in this direction have provided valuable understanding regarding the sense of presence in the virtual environment.
vol 1:2b_d >   Yeo Wookhyun, Yuda Yasuyuki, Fukuda Tomohiro, Kaga Atsuko, Sasada Tsuyoshi
Development of the Caadria Abstract Reviewer System
  In this paper, I would like to present the method and system that I developed in the CAADRIA 2005 reviewer system. Along with the background and purpose of this system, I would like to show the problems that arose in the process of constructing and operating the system, that is to say, in practical application, and this will be followed by a description of the subsequent tasks for future reviewers of the system.
vol 1:2c_a >   Ivan Redi, Andrea Redi
A.N.D.I. - A new Digital Instrument for networked creative collaboration in architecture and net.art
  A.N.D.I. (A New Digital Instrument), an open source software project, has objective to develop a run-time environment with the focus on the applications for the networked international and cross-disciplinary production in the creative sphere of architecture, urban planning, design and net.art. It is a digital environment which opens the possibilities to generate advanced projects in a networked society. This new working tools will increase the creativity, productivity and competitiveness of the involved actors by drawing upon and developing technologies for virtual, augmented and mixed realities. A.N.D.I. has two basic aspects. On the one hand it is a database driven collaborative environment and on the other hand it will enable the development of future software and tools for networked creative collaboration.
vol 1:2c_b >   Geeta Arjun
An Agent Facilitated Design Conversation System for Aiding Creative Thinking in Architectural Design
  This paper presents an on-going research aimed at designer support in the conceptual stages of architectural design. It is argued that collaboration plays an important role at every stage of the design process. Extending Sch'n's seminal theory of 'design as a conversation', the support of the conceptual architectural design process is proposed as a dialogue between the designer and the computational agents wherein the agents adopt the role of design team members. The dialogue is theoretically aimed at triggering the experiential memory of the designer and associating significant experiences from different domains of the design problem to stimulate creative thinking. The paper presents an outline of the proposed model for a design-conversation system implementing computational agents in a blackboard architecture environment.
vol 1:2c_d >   Ih-Cheng Lai
Mapmaker: Linking Plays among Ideas, Cases and Links
  Idea association involves a dynamic linking process among ideas, cases and the links themselves. Based on the knowledge representation issue-concept-form proposed by Oxman (1994), design ideas, cases and links are elucidated. Furthermore, various and dynamic linking plays are involved in two steps: divergent, in which alternative idea entities are linked, and convergent, in which these idea entities are selected. These linking plays provide a computational mechanism for indexing prior design cases dynamically. Finally, an index prototype for supporting the linking process of idea association, called Mapmaker, is proposed in this paper.
vol 1:2c_f >   Somen Chakraborty, Uttam Kumar Banerjee
Mathematical Models Representing Experts' Evaluation for Layout of Small Dwelling Units
  For the purpose of automated generation of room-layouts for dwelling units, all feasible plans that are generated during the process of generation of room-layouts are to be evaluated. Selection of a layout will be done based on some mathematical models for satisfaction values of users. In this paper we have shown models to obtain satisfaction values of dwellers primarily based on the opinion of experts who have experience in successfully designing or evaluating dwelling units as a part of mass housing in Kolkata region.
vol 1:7a_d >   Chieh-Jen Lin, Mao-Lin Chiu
Ontology Based Design Knowledge Detective Agent
  Design knowledge abstracted from cases is important for designers. This paper is aimed to build an agent to detect those correlations between explicit features of design cases and relevant design problems. Using the data mining algorithm, we have accumulated a list of keywords about design problems and their relevant concept from textual information of a case library, and established their semantic ontology by clustering their semantic and sentence structural relations from previous studies. Meanwhile, we also established another hierarchical ontology of explicit design case features by applying design domain knowledge. Then, through mapping semantic relations of relevant keywords between two ontologies, the system will become more sensitive to the correlations of design case features and relevant design problems. Finally, a graphical interface is built to visualize these correlations and help user to recognize useful design knowledge cached in design cases.
vol 1:7b_a >   A.Q.M. Abdullah, Md. Emran Hossain, Md. Shabab Habib Khan
Digital Perception, Development and Presentation in Architecture: a study of Bangladesh with global context
  In the recent past the computer has become an important tool in both the design and presentation media/method in architecture. In this paper digitalization in architectural practice and architectural education in both the global and Bangladesh contexts have been studied. A survey questionnaire was carried out to find how and to what extent available software are being used in Bangladesh for this purpose. Opinion, views, expectations of architects from leading architectural firms of Bangladesh were studied to understand the future prospect of this field in Bangladesh.
vol 1:7b_b >   Verdy Kwee, Anthony Radfor, Dean Bruton
Mixed Media Visualizations in Digital Analyses of Architectural Works
  This paper considers how available technologies and media from different disciplines may be applied in the analysis of architecture; it attempts to refine and redefine the current representation techniques in the discipline to enhance the quality of understanding of the built-form through the computer screen. The authors' current research case study, the analysis of The Arthur and Yvonne Boyd Education Centre, is used to illustrate some approaches and issues.
vol 1:7b_c >   Chang, Chuang-Ting
Some Phenomena of Touch in Study Models
  The senses of 'Touch' bring people the feeling of reality, and human beings can always naturally sense the tactile impression. Hence we touch things and our sense tells us that our hands are touching something (Hinckley et al. 1999). Comparing to the tools used by designers between traditional and new digital media in the design process, the most difference is in the sense of touch. This paper focuses on the sense of touch to point out the haptic experience which have ignored by the past in design process. Four phenomena will be discussed in details and some useful suggestions given for future study.
vol 1:7b_d >   Jane R. Burry, Andrew L. Burrow, Mark C. Burry
Upholding the Poetic in Design Collaboration
  Design is a fundamentally collaborative activity. It commonly calls on a wide range of expertise and is arguably most effective when all contributions can be considered from an early and highly conceptual phase of the process. The sharing of information, particularly in a process that, at its best, involves collective conceptualisation is complicated by the very close and reciprocal relationship between the partial knowledge about the object of design and the mode of expression or representation of these ideas. As the design process and its numerous inputs, iterations and interrelationships become embedded in the communications; knowledge capture, management and access become central issues. This paper will selectively recount some of the substantive evidence for the characteristics of communication environments most supportive to design collaboration. In response to these findings it will introduce the use of wiki as the basis of an environment to provide this support, provide more detailed examples of the ways in which wiki has been adopted in early collaborative experiments and describe the developments currently being implemented, and how these are being tested in use.
vol 1:7c_a >   Anandan Karunakaran
Organisation of Pedestrian Movements: an Agent-Based Approach
  Cities are becoming more complex in this digital era due to technological changes. Thinking of cities without such technological changes is equivalent to an embryonic state in the morphology of city growth, that is, the growth seems less advanced. So it is appropriate to think of the non digital city digitally. Urban design is one state which establishes the perfect relationship between the street, people and building. The relationship of the people with the building and street is becoming one of the key factors in architecture. It has been observed that the design of a city has been influenced by the pedestrian movement. Many cities prior to the industrial era were largely determined by the social interactions based on walking. Thus the pedestrians play a key role in the formation of the city. They are a very important component in any representation of transport movements. They generally terminate or initiate a chain of linked activities, and if observed carefully, a single pedestrian movement is meant to include various sub journeys from one location to another. In order to organize pedestrians, we need to understand the pedestrian movement system. Though there is a lot of development of urban models in this aspect, it is still in a nascent state in comparison with the digital advancement. Thus much research work is carried out which can be applied to any given environmental setting, and as a result urban designers can respond to the changing socio-cultural technologies.
vol 1:7c_b >   Yen-Liang Wu, Chor-Kheng Lim, June-Hao Hou, Yuan-Zone Lee, Yu-Tung Liu
Multiple digital media in realizing future spaces
  Innovative media made a varied representation of urban and architectural spaces. However, the interaction between human and the space requires other new media to present. In this research, based on experts' opinions about future space and lifestyle, we create a creative scenario and produce a video through video camera, digital image process, computer animation. In addition, virtual studio, camera matching and motion capture are added to simulate how people would interact with the spaces in the city life.
vol 1:7c_c >   Yukiko Nomura, Tatsuya Kishimoto
Visualization of Tourists' Behavior and Activity Using GPS and GIS in Kamakura City
  We suggest a new method using GPS to investigate human activities in an urban area. The time and space data of tourists' migration in a specific tourist area from GPS are focused on. The data are visualized on GIS so that 'Nigiwai' activity can be analyzed including notion of time. From the analysis, places that pedestrians tend to stay longer or move slower, and those that they aren't, are found. As a case study, we analyze activity in Kamakura City using the suggested method, and examine the possibilities of application for the urban space design.
vol 1:7c_d >   Jin Yeu Tsou, Jie He, Yucai Xue
An Open Space with Scenery: 'Greenscape Index' for Performance Based Planning of High Density Urban Habitation
  This paper presents an improvement of the original openness ratio concept, which has been formulated as an integrated index for early-stage urban open space planning and design support. The 'greenscape index' is a rating system which quantitatively integrates human visual perception with the visible landscape resources to evaluate the visual quality of open space vision within high-density urban environment. This new index is expected to provide more comprehensive environmental performance consideration criteria for urban planning and design. The research team also discusses the potential of the introducing this index to assess both psychological preference and physical form of urban open spaces. The new concept also has shown its feasibility on integrating key environmental considerations in visual sensitivity, urban wind, urban noise and solar heat gain into simple massing study which is applicable in the preliminary planning stage.
vol 1:7c_e >   B. Kenzari
Crysallizing Design Intentions, Using CNC, Laser and Rapid Protoytping Technolgies
  The advances made in the Rapid Prototyping and CAD/CAM (including CNC and Laser) Technologies are now offering designers the privilege of building physical realities, at whatever scale, directly and automatically from computer files, with the explicit implications of speed, precision and flexibility.
vol 1:7c_f >   M N H Siddique, Qazi A. Mowla, Mohammad A. Al Masum
Virtuality in Architecture: A Design Metaphor
  Traditionally, architecture in its design process employs physical matter, requires physical presence and relies on real world environment using conventional methods of 2D depictions such as paper and pen or 3D representations such as physical models and communicates design ideas in verbal or text-based form. The conventional design process, for example an interior design, a residential house, a commercial complex or even urban design projects, follows the same hierarchy of activities. Efforts are made to the satisfaction of both parties to give the ideas of a physical shape through sketches, drafts and models which may take weeks even months. Finally the project gets its final shape in a working drawing, 3D visualisation or model making. This process is time consuming and somewhat redundant. In recent years technology has offered architects a new tool - the virtual environment. Architects use virtual environment increasingly as device of communication and presentation of design intensions. Virtual environment enables users to interact in real-time with design but unfortunately have not been used widely in the process of design development. The aim of this paper is to investigates the relationship between present design process and the emerging technology of virtual reality, establish a relationship between the two and its influence on architecture to form a new translated design process and communication, an interface between architect and client.
vol 1:7c_g >   Stylianos Dritsas, Sameer Kashyap
Scripted Mockups: Bridging Digital and Physical Through Computation
  This paper illustrates a method of user-level software developmentcomputer programming within a Computer Aided Design application environment-as a means of collapsing the process of translating complex geometric objects from the digital to the physical reality.
vol 1:8a_a >   Jixi Ai, Shike Li, Gebing Wei
Digital Method for Landscape Evaluation: Taking The Lesser Three Gorges for example
  Landscape in narrow sense means a set of multiple features about topography, landforms, scenery and etc., and it is in accord to general people, especially their visual experience and psychological cognition, and acceptable too by architects and planners. The paper presents a digital method aimed the type of river valley landscape and several key quantitative indexes. The writers have taken the Lesser Three Gorges for an example to evaluate its value in landscape, and shown this method available and useful.
vol 1:8a_b >   Riken Homma, Kazuhisa Iki, Ryouichi Ise
Development of the knowledge-sharing sheet system for landscape design management
  In a public design, such as a landscape, it is important that the information on the design process be shared among the planners, the administration, and the citizens, and to continue the design work with consensus. A landscape design proposal cannot be reasonably evaluated from only the result of a design since the decision making process would not be sufficiently explained. Therefore, designers are required to record and store several design documents during the design process. The development of a knowledge management technique is desirable in order to facilitate the sharing of the project information in the designer's group. The authors have researched knowledge management in a landscape design process, developed a heuristic knowledge-sharing tool that aids decision-making by consensus in a design process. This tool is a sheet system based on XML (extensible markup language). It allows the user to retrieve knowledge from a similar design project, and to customize the formats of a sheet according to the design process.
vol 1:8a_c >   Ruei-Wen Tsai, Teng-Wen Chang
Land forming while you are on site
  In landscape architecture design, land forming is the key to trigger many design concepts. However, the design media we currently used doesn't provide suitable data or better visual feedback to designers when they are on site. In this paper, we develop a framework as well as a ubiquitous device called MODA comprised of five components. They are sensors, representation, display/viewing, motion and control that result from behaviors observation and analysis. According to the framework, a practical example of landform design is conducted and examined with one version of MODA combining both hardware and software.
vol 1:8b_a >   Jia-Yih Joy Chen, Taysheng Jeng
A Context-Aware Home for Child-minding
  This paper introduces the concept of context awareness to the application of designing an interactive home with emphasis on child-minding. We setup the functional requirements of a context-aware home and seek the technology to provide safety monitor and real-time guidance for kid who is temporarily alone at home. The approaches presented are: (1) Survey and Research Scope (2) User Life Pattern Observations (3) Activity Zones and Scenarios (3) Context Database and Context Manager (4) Media and Interface (5) Evaluation. The process and result will lead our following applications of context awareness in future interactive home study.
vol 1:8b_b >   Wingly Shih
VR-CAVE as a multimodal interaction environment
  This research focused on building a software system on VR-CAVE for multiple users' interaction with various media, alongside simultaneous communication amongst users. While all users interact with virtual objects in VR-CAVE concurrently, by means of several kinds of input device, including conventional mouse and keyboard, PDAs, mobile phones and laptops, users can communicate with each other through the most natural way at the same time. The system prototype was implemented and still in development for extension on the strength of supporting more input device and media formats. Further research would make VR-CAVE not only a representing tool, but a platform for design communication and evaluation, or a collaborative design environment.
vol 1:8b_c >   N. Biloria, K. Oosterhuis
Envisioning the RESPONSIVE milieu: An investigation into aspects of ambient intelligence, human machine symbiosis and ubiquitous computing for developing a generic real-time interactive spatial prototype
  The research paper exemplifies upon a design-research experiment conducted by the Hyperbody research group (HRG), TU Delft, Faculty of Architecture under the supervision of the Author and Prof. Kas Oosterhuis (director HRG and ONL). The research work, specifically aimed at developing a real-time interactive spatial prototype, fostering multiple usability of space: 'The Muscle Re-configured'. The ensuing Muscle Re-configured project is essentially an architectural design research undertaking maneuvering on the precincts of augmented and virtual reality, exemplifying a fusion between the material and the digital counterpart of the architectural domain. This fusion is attained through harnessing a synergistic merger between the fields of ambient intelligence, control systems, ubiquitous computing, architectural design, pneumatic systems and computation (real-time game design techniques). The prototype is visualized as a complex adaptive system, continually engaged in activities of data-exchange and optimal augmentation of its (systems) components in accordance with contextual variations.
vol 1:8c_a >   Jing-Ji Chang, Teng-Wen Chang
Chinese Calligraphy as Copmutational Architecture Form Exploration
  Chinese calligraphy can often represent both sensory and formal expression of design concepts through its characteristics within the hand kinesis and motions expressing writer's direct intentions. We propose an architectural form exploration interface for simulating Chinese calligraphy concept to give a rich dimensional mapping with architectural form for designers who might not skilled in Chinese calligraphy.
vol 1:8c_b >   Alejandro Arismendy Echeverri
Time-based computer aided architectural research for mapping techniques in multicultural space re-definitions.
  This paper shall explore the process of research for the development of time-based computer aided applications as an alternative for mapping techniques. As part of an on going research, it was determined the necessity of implementing computer design strategies for time-based mapping due to the complexity and real-time variability of multicultural societies within its chrono-geo-ghraphical constrains for architectural space re-definitions.
vol 1:8c_c >   Jeff W.T Kan, John S. Gero
Can Entropy Indicate the Richness of Idea Generation in Team Designing?
  This paper presents the development of a quantitative method to study team designing processes. It revisits linkograhy - a graphical representation of the design moves - and depicts ways of interpreting the linkography using entropy from Shannon's information theory, to compare design processes. A case study with two different scenarios is presented followed by the results and conclusions.
vol 1:8c_d >   Kvan, Thomas, Gao, Song
Examining the distribution of framing in design communication
  Previous studies have employed statistical methods to identify correlations and significant differences in design activities among different design environments by means of protocal analysis. In our recent papers using the same methods, we identified the occurrences of frames in different design collaboration settings and calculated the proportion of frames occurring. The results have confirmed that problem framing in design activities is not at a disadvantage in digital settings. In this paper, a graphical technique, linkograph, is used to investigate the distribution of different types of frames among different design settings based on the structure of framing activities.
Vol_1:8c_e >   Uttiya Bhattacharya
Modeling Designing: Cognitive Models of the Design Process Using A Semantic Approach
  This text is about research in design methods that the author hopes to undertake in the future. The objective of the research is to devise a cognitive model of designing, using empirical means of studying designers at work. The purpose of this proposal with respect to the research is to present it to an audience - preferably as a poster session, and examine possible strengths and weaknesses in the proposal. Apart from the obvious benefits that accompany any external scrutiny, there would be the advantage of presenting some independently incubated ideas to the rigors of an established realm of research. During the course of the presentation, there is an examination of the Design Methods Movement of the 1970's, followed by an inquiry into its apparent failure. Subsequently, empirical studies in design research that have been undertaken are discussed - followed by a proposal to use verbal utterances in designing, and semantically map them with an ontology modeler like KAON. Instead, the author proposes to use an ontology-instance modeler to record and disseminate verbal utterances, and thus form a cognitive model of designing. Words spoken during designing - and presenting design - can be coded, and used to form a cognitive model, using the parameters of concept, property and instance that KAON uses. The author also presents a tentative methodology of empirically observing designers at work, and modeling designing using KAON. In conclusion, it is established that such research would help develop a cognitive model of designing more that one that is computational but would nevertheless rely heavily on computational support. Moreover, such analysis would also need pro-active collaboration of the designers being studied.
  vol 2:ISBN 81-902816-2-3, 515 p.
vol 2:3a_b >   Yeo Wookhyun, Motoi Toshio, Fukuda Tomohiro, Kaga Atsuko
Analysis and Development of Real-time Simulation for Environmental Design
  In this study, we introduce the history of adapting real-time simulation to Environmental Design, and develop the study of user interface which we think was needed at this stage. In detail, we developed functions for generalization such as improving maneuverability and the enhancement of reusability. And we developed special functions to achieve the goal in the project such as distance measurement function, surplus soil calculation function and section function. These developments made it faster to build up new real-time simulation in another project.
vol 2:3a_c >   Kuhn Park, Ramesh Krishnamurti
Digital diary of a building; A system for retrieval and update of information over a building life cycle
  We consider a digital diary of a building to be a system for flexibly retrieving and updating building information over the life cycle of the building a system that is independent of any task-centric use. The key challenges to realizing such a system are the users and their intensions. For a practical demonstration of the notion we use IFC as the protocol for representing a building information model space and the concept of sorts to embrace representational flexibility. The ideas for the digital diary stem from four real construction case studies which we undertook as part of an on-going research project.
vol 2:3a_d >   Atsuko Kaga, Yasuyuki Yuda, Tomohiro Fukuda, Sooyeon Oh
Research on the design technique begun from "human activity" in an environmental design
  In environmental design, an important point is that each person concerned deals with a specific aspect of a project, and it is important these people discuss with, arrive at consensus, and advance steadily. One general problem in this environmental initial design stage that should be mentioned is that of concentrating only on the act of building, "field and facility". That is, the human activity, such as use, maintenance management, etc. after construction, and building usage are seldom considered. The purpose of the research is to make sharing the image of "human activity" easy within a team, and the research proposes media which support this as part of a design technique which performs examination and proposal smoothly, and can examine "field and facility" continuously.
vol 2:3b_a >   Sotirios D. Kotsopoulos
Rule Based Composition
  A framework of rule based composition, appropriate for the architectural studio, is outlined. Rules, grammars and a shape grammar digital interpreter are put into use in the generation of designs.
vol 2:3b_b >   Jae Hwan Jung
Algorithmic forest: A Study to Generate 'Lighting-Revealing' Structure by Algorithm
  In today's world of architectural design the use of computational technology as drawing and modeling tools is ubiquitous. However, the typical use of the computer as a design tool generally limits the creative aspect of architectural design. Incorporating algorithm can enhance traditional 'manual' methods of CAD based design, as well as furthering human intellect in the field of architectural design. The research to be presented will demonstrate the potential benefits of algorithms by using them to design and generate a structure that creates variable lighting effects similar to those created by natural light shining through trees in a forest.
vol 2:3b_c >   Hong-Sheng Chen, Chi-Hua, Li
What Makes an Effective Case in Case-based Learning? : Our Debates at a Constructivist Teaching Studio
  Case-based learning was adopted in a constructivist teaching studio. In this experimental class, teachers and students used cases for mutual learning in many ways. A significant question was debated in this class: 'What makes an effective case in case-based learning'? This investigation studies students' active construction of the meaning. The answer at the didactic teaching class will be quite different from ours. However, this investigation seeks to share our discussion and experience about this topic.
vol 2:3b_d >   Paul Varghese, Arif Merchant
Modelling shapes for design and computation: Hybrid Algebras for the Designer
  A scheme for using shapes from hybrid algebras as the basis for modelling is examined, which offer advantages over conventional design modelling methods, such as pure solid models.
vol 2:3c_a >   Christopher Lowry
Making Understanding: Research in the application of virtual environments in the teaching of architectural design and technology
  This paper describes how the application of interactive three dimensional computer modelling enables students of architecture to gain a comprehensive insight into how buildings are made. An intimate exploration of what can be, in the student's perception, a lacklustre subject area is revitalized through the use of virtual building models and introduces the student to the potentials of this medium in communicating their own design work. In addition the published case studies are navigated as one would a web site which is a familiar and comfortable format for the student. Original working drawings and specification provided by architects are utilised in generating detailed three dimensional virtual models of the complete building along with larger scale detail studies of particular building components. The models are then animated or transferred to VRML format for publication within interactive case studies. The case studies may be accessed via the department server for use by staff during lectures and seminars or informally by the individual student.
vol 2:3c_b >   Yingdan Huang, Ipek Ozkaya, Ramesh Krishnamurti
Exploring chinese traditional architecture: Interactive Realization of a Traditional Construction Process
  This paper describes an interactive tool for visually exploring the spatial organization and construction process of Chinese traditional dwellings.
vol 2:3c_c >   Jawaid Haider, Theodor Wyeld, Peter Scriver
On the Pedagogical Benefits of Incorporating Digital Media in the Teaching of Architectural History and Theory
  This paper reports on the use of physical and digital media in a history and theories of twentieth century architecture and landscape course. An electronic bulletin board (ebb) was used to generate an open forum for critical dialogue on textual, physical, and digital media. It gave teachers and students the ability to observe the course in new ways. Student interactions with the ebb transformed a culture of hidden collaboration to an open exchange of ideas and concepts. Of particular interest here is the use of 3-D digital composing tools (VRML) that provided a simple, but powerful way to visualize ideas which physical representation often could not. This approach instilled a philosophy of linking design and theory, where history and theory are seen as a body of knowledge consciously brought to bear on design practice.
vol 2:3c_d >   Jaeho Ryu, Naoki Hashimoto,, Makoto Sato
Study on Factors of Distance Estimation at Architectural Presentation Tool in Immersive Virtual Environments
  The VR technology has been used as the application of architectural presentation tool in the field of industry. The high immersion and intuitive visual information are the great merits of design evaluation when we are using the virtual environments. But the distortion of distance perception in VR is a problem when the accuracy of distance presentation is required to evaluate the preliminary design concept precisely. In this paper, we have carried out some experiments about distance estimation in the immersive virtual environments to verity the factors and their influence. First, we verify the difference of distance estimation in the real and the virtual hallway. The result showed that subjects underestimate the walked distance in the condition of virtual hallway. At the next experiment about the influence of image-resolution, we have figured out the resolution has affected on the distance estimation in the virtual environments.
vol 2:3c_e >   Yasushi Onohara, Tatsuya Kishimoto
VR System by the Combination of HMD and Gyro Sensor for Streetscape Evaluation
  In this paper, Virtual Reality System for Streetscape and Street space evaluation using the Virtual Reality system are concerned. Light and small VR system using the combination of HMD and 3 axes gyro sensor, which provides view stereoscopic environments and enable us to view all direction of streetscape, is presented. Next, the adaptability of this system for the streetscape and space evaluation is confirmed through two experiments. The sense of Height, Volume, Amenity, Depth, and Activeness of different stand points and those by different streets which have different width are investigated and several features of sense of Street space are clarified by the VR system.
vol 2:3c_f >   Kai-Ming Yang
A bodily user interface for VR-CAVE
  The main purpose of this research is to explore how body movement can increase user's sense of presence in the virtual reality cave (VR-CAVE). Traditionally, in architectural applications, there is no interaction between users and VR-CAVE. Visual perception is the major way of presentation. The users feel certain level of sense of presence. Therefore, in order to increase user's sense of presence, we designed a bodily user interface as our controller which utilized user's body movement to interact with VR. The contribution is that not only a user can easily or effortlessly control and navigate VR space but also VR navigation will directly link to the experience of walking in a physical space, which provides strong sense of presence to user.
vol 2:4a_a >   Ravi S. Srinivasan, Ali M. Malkawi
Reinforcement Learning and Real-time Building Thermal Performance Data Visualization
  Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are used to predict the fluid behavior and particle systems-in-action in three-dimensional space, allowing experts to evaluate a series of environmental decisions in designing buildings. Although computing power has increased in the past decade, detailed CFD simulations introduce time-delay that defeats the notion of real-time data visualization. A method that can bypass the time-consuming simulations and generate results comparable to detailed CFD simulations will allow such visualizations to be constructed. This paper discusses a pilot project that utilizes a Reinforcement Learning (RL) algorithm coupled with a simplified fluid dynamics equation to generate thermal performance data for real-time visualization.
vol 2:4a_b >   Ruchi Choudhary, Jeremy Michalek
Design Optimization in Computer-Aided Architectural Design
  The proposition of using design optimization to formalize and add rigor to the decision-making process in building and construction was earlier compiled by Radford et al. in 1988, providing an in-depth demonstration of techniques available at the time. Much has changed since, both in the available solution methods and the nature of the problems themselves. This paper provides an updated insight into past and current trends of using this engineering design paradigm to solve architectural design problems, with an emphasis on continuous nonlinear formulations of simulation-based problems. The paper demonstrates different problem formulations and current techniques for solving them. Examples from recent research are used to demonstrate significant achievements and existing challenges associated with formalizing and solving decision-making tasks in architecture.
vol 2:4a_c >   Halil I. Erhan, Ulrich Flemming
User-System Interaction Design for Requirements Modeling
  RaBBiT (Requirements Building for Building Types) provides computational support for architectural programming or requirements modeling in building design. A highly interactive graphical user interface (GUI) allows users to adapt RaBBiT to various programming styles and terminologies. Since users are not expected to have any prior computer programming experience, the design of RaBBiT's GUI posed particular challenges, which we attempted to meet through a direct-manipulation interface based on the model-world metaphor.
vol 2:4a_d >   T. Thurow, D. Donath
Get the Surveying Building Data Into the CAAD System: A Realistic Approach for the Practice
  The digital support of the planning process is a currently a central focus of our research and will be presented and discussed in this paper. Concepts and prototypes for the computer aided support of the planning process are being developed as part of a special research project 'Construction and materials for the renovation of buildings'. The paper examines the flexible combination of different surveying techniques and geometric abstractions achieved with the help of geodesic computational adjustment methods. Selected aspects have been implemented and investigated as prototypes and the prototypes are described and discussed.
vol 2:4b_a >   Hsuan-Cheng Lin, Yang-Ting Shen, Tayseng Jeng
IP++:Computer-Augmented Information Portal in Place
  In this paper, we introduce the concept of information portal (IP) that is a smart environment composed of a variety of computer-augmented architectural components. The objective of information portal is to augment information capabilities to places and support interactive media linked to location. A research prototype of information portal called IP++ is developed. Interactive experiences of IP++ that take place in a variety of outdoor and indoor settings are demonstrated.
vol 2:4b_b >   Seichter, Hartmut, Schnabel, Marc Aurel
Digital and Tangible Sensation: An Augmented Reality Urban Design Studio
  Traditionally urban design is perceived, communicated and created using physical and digital media. However, these realms are handled as separate entities, which hinder collaboration, understanding and communication. Collaborative Augmented Reality (AR) systems can integrate these tasks into one media type and allow a different conversation with complex issues. Human Computer Interfaces and Tangible User Interfaces play key role in AR. They allow an engagement with both the real and virtual component of an urban design project. This paper describes an urban design studio that employs AR as medium of collaboration, the theoretical framework of sense of presence, the understanding and the quality of the resulting design.
vol 2:4b_c >   Tomohiro Fukuda, Atsuko Kaga, Ryuichiro Nagahama, Nobuyuki Shibano, Tsuyoshi Sasada, Yu-Tung Liu
The World's Largest VR-Dome for Collaborative Design
  This paper reports on the development of a new VR (Virtual Reality) system with the world's largest hemispherical screen, which can display high immersive, life-size scale, stereoscopic images. A cluster of PCs is used in master-slave architecture, with 18 slave PCs for rendering left eye and right eye images, and the master for synchronizing the images for stereo view. Contents can be shared with a VR system operating on a notebook with a new VR system developed as part of the same VR toolkit. We apply the system to a real, collaborative architectural design project.
vol 2:4b_d >   Martin Tamke
Baking Light: Global Illumination in VR Environments as architectural design tool
  As proven in the past, immersive Virtual Environments can be helpful in the process of architectural design (Achten et al. 1999). But still years later, these systems are not common in the architectural design process, neither in architectural education nor in professional work. The reasons might be the high price of e.g. CAVEs, the lack of intuitive navigation and design tools in those environments, the absence of useful and easy to handle design workflows, and the quality constraints of real-time display of 3D models. A great potential for VR in the architectural workflow is the review of design decisions: Display quality, comfortable navigation and realistic illumination are crucial ingredients here. Light is one of the principal elements in architectural design, so design reviews must enable the architect to judge the quality of his design in this respect. Realistic light simulations, e.g. via radiosity algorithms, are no longer the domain of high-end graphic workstations. Today's off-the-shelf hardware and 3D-software provide the architect with high-quality tools to simulate physically correct light distributions. But the quality and impression of light is hard to judge from looking at still renderings. In collaboration with the Institute of Computer Graphics at our university we have established a series of regular design reviews in their immersive virtual environment. This paper describes the workflow that has emerged from this collaboration, the tools that were developed and used, and our practical experiences with global-light-simulations. We share results which we think are helpful to others, and we highlight areas where further research is necessary.
vol 2:4c_a >   Yu-Chung Cheng, Ji-Hyun Lee
Integrating scenario-based design and case-based design for user participation in Apartment plan design process
  It has been a ubiquitous problem that users generally do not participate in housing design process. In Taiwan, however, apartment buyers have a chance to customize their plan until the construction takes place. This paper attempts to solve the problem about user participation in apartment plan design by integrating scenario-based design and case-based design approaches. We build an interactive computational tool for designers to support user participation in the apartment plan design process and to prove our concepts by some concrete examples.
vol 2:4c_b >   Chang, Ting-Yuan
Shift the Style: Supporting Product Design through Evolving Styles
  How can we provide computational supports for product designers to actively utilize existing styles as driving force to achieve new designs? For a new style that can take the advantage from existing styles, we surveyed Case-Based Design and Case-Based Reasoning systems for product design and found discouraging results. We employ Learning Classifier Systems, a machine-learning paradigm, to perform automatic style classification. These classified styles are used to evolve new styles of designs.
vol 2:4c_c >   Sumbul Ahmad, Scott C. Chase
Transforming grammars of historical architecture for the generation of contemporary designs: With an example from Islamic courtyard buildings
  A primary issue facing architects of the Islamic world is the generation of contemporary designs based on architecture of the past. We discuss shape grammars as a framework for the design generation of plans of courtyard buildings of Islamic architecture and describe ongoing research for the transformation of grammars of historic Islamic building types to generate new, contemporary designs or design styles. We raise issues in the grammar transformation framework and discuss directions of exploration that could be relevant to the design methods of Islamic architecture.
vol 2:4c_d >   Sambit Datta
On Recovering the Surface Geometry of Temple Superstructures
  The application of computational techniques to the analysis of heritage artifacts enables scholars to bring together diverse fragments of surviving evidence, construe 'best-fit' strategies and unearth implicit or hidden relationships. This paper reports a hybrid approach for recovering the surface geometry of temples. The approach combines physical measurements, architectural photogrammetry and generative rules to create a parametric model of the surface. The computing of surface geometry is broken into three parts, a global model governing the overall form of the superstructure, local models governing the geometry of individual motifs and finally the global and local models are combined into a single geometry. In this paper, the technique for recovering surface geometry is applied to a tenth century stone superstructure: the temple of Ranakdevi at Wadhwan in Western India. The global model of the superstructure and the local model of one individual motif are presented.
vol 2:4c_e >   J. Jinu Louishidha Kitchley, A. Srivathsan
Combining Shape Grammar and Genetic Algorithm for Developing A Housing Layout: Capturing the Complexity of an Organic Fishing Settlement
  Many settlements like the fishermen's habitat have organically developed and embody the complex relation between land characteristics, functional activities and social aspirations. However, the recent rehabilitation and planning projects, constrained by technical and inscriptional rigidities, have become relatively fixed, formal and monotonous. This research attempts to harness and integrate some of the qualities of organic design process into computer aided design. The two complementary fields of Shape Grammar and Genetic algorithm have been converged for this purpose.
vol 2:4c_f >   Pi-Yuan Tang, Teng-Wen Chang
Mutating 3D generative form with co-evolve approach
  Generative design system develops the purpose that is can generate a large number of design plans. Generative design system can let designer unceasingly explore the new design plans. At present generative design system, they all only have one kind of generative mechanism. Therefore, one can't provide enough feasibility for designer to explore new plans. So, in this paper, we propose a Co-Generative Form System (COgenForm). COgenForm is a 3D form exploration system that invokes two set of generative mechanisms. This system used co-evolutional characteristics to build the steps and framework of co-generative design process. This system includes two groups of generative mechanisms and these will evolve with each other. Using this system, the form exploration and generation process can be more dynamic and more alternatives.
vol 2:5a_a >   Udo Kannengiesser, John S. Gero
A framework for situated design agents
  This paper presents the beginnings of a framework to enhance our understanding of situated design agents. It builds on the function-behaviour-structure (FBS) schema to represent essential concepts of situated designing. Our framework covers different stages in the life-cycle of situated design agents, including their development, testing and usage.
vol 2:5a_b >   De-Lun Huang, Shen-Guan Shih
A Case-Based Decision Support System for Housing Refurbishment
  Effective communication is a key for ensuring quality of housing refurbishment. This paper provides a framework of decision support system for housing refurbishment that helps designers better communicate with tenants who generally lack expert knowledge and can not express their needs clearly. The framework is constructed using Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) for retrieving past similar cases to meet the challenges and demands of the present refurbishment project at hand. With the help of the system, users can retrieve past cases that match the users' requirements and revise them to meet current needs. It can also be used as design criteria for evaluating the final product to ensure its conformance with the initial planning. A test case is used to demonstrate the system's suitability. The effectiveness of this system is supported by a post-experiment evaluation and interview with the tenant concerning his satisfaction on the refurbishment.
vol 2:5a_c >   Julie R. Jupp, Ricardo Sosa, John S. Gero
Generating Innovative Designs Using Qualitative Spatial Reasoning
  In this paper we present a generative system supported by qualitative spatial reasoning. The approach incorporates qualitative modelling in an evolutionary system to automate the design of novel solutions assessed as compatible with a set of existing designs. The system is presented through an application of door design and demonstrates how development guidelines aimed at preserving a building or streetscape's visual character can be met by novel designs. The results presented in this paper illustrate the generation of novel designs that intuitively capture key characteristics of the corpus of existing designs at a qualitative level. This approach provides the basis for new kinds of design tools.
vol 2:5b_a >   Mao-Lin Chiu, Ju-Hung Lan, Kou-Wei Sun
City modeling for large scale urban redevelopment - Methodology and implementation
  The paper reviews the development of city modeling and depicts the city modeling process for large scale urban redevelopment. From an information mining viewpoint, the city model built has various levels of details and it consists of street and building tags for identification, and the web-based interface is built for retrieving information and better understanding of the environmental changes as well as the progress of urban development. The demonstration and discussion are presented.
vol 2:5b_b >   Dean Bruton, Arus Kunkhet
Grammatical Design and Crowd Behaviour: A study of factors that influence human movement in urban spaces
  Crowd behaviour in traffic and emergency situations has been recorded and documented since the early 1990s, often using digital representations of balls as an indicator of mass and movement. This paper reports the investigation of the factors that influence human movement in urban spaces and visualises the impact on human movements of changes to an urban design space. Using an agent-oriented approach is the common method for investigating the simulation of crowd behaviour. The relation of grammatical design to crowd behaviour is proposed as an important research area. This area developed since the technology for the advanced design visualisation of avatars or animated characters became available. The authors of the software used in Lord of the Rings and other well-known crowd movies have contributed to knowledge of the key issues in crowd behaviour in particular contexts and general situations. This paper relates experiments in teaching grammatical approaches to architectural design with digital media as a tool with three different implementations: a cafe, restaurant and gallery. Using a variety of design visualisation techniques gives different understandings of the use of a design space. By representing human movement in a design space in more complex visualisations we see more alternatives for better design more readily. Using notions of grammar, contingency and play to explore simple changes in design, the resulting crowd animations present an insightful early research stage experiment with the theories and models of crowd behaviour.
vol 2:5b_c >   Andreas Voigt, Helena Linzer
Added Value: Implementation of User Requirements in City Simulators
  The following contribution discusses the possible consequences of the concept of City Simulators and Digital City Models, which can be obtained from a previously conducted user inquiry in an Urban Planning Department. At the core of the examination are the additional benefit (added value) and the increasing acceptance of digital planning techniques by its users which can be made possible by the implementation of user requirements in City Simulators. Various experiments for cooperative planning in the urban space are formulated.
vol 2:5b_d >   Andre Brown, Michael Knight, Martin Winchester
Representation and Delivery of City Models
  City modelling has a considerable range of potential applications and because of this, as a field of research has attracted a great deal of attention over recent years. Here we reflect on work already reported by the authors in this area, describe some more recent work on improving the system that had been developed and show an example of how city modelling is being applied in practice as a planning tool in the UK.
vol 2:5c_a >   Dr. Surapong Lertsithichai
A Tangible Modeling Interface for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Systems
  Computer-aided architectural design (CAAD) systems have been widely adopted in the architectural practice to improve and speed up late design phases. However, CAAD has not been successfully implemented in the early phases of design due to the overly structured nature of interactions with its interface. Current CAAD interfaces leave little room for intended ambiguity crucial to design conception and can cause obstructions to spontaneous creative thought. This research hypothesizes that architects employ tangible interactions to assist design-thinking tasks in early design phases. In doing so, architects can lessen visual overload and exploit underutilized motor skills and hand-eye coordination lacking in most CAAD systems. With this premise, a new CAAD interface is proposed, prototyped, and evaluated to validate the hypothesis. The new interface can retain functionality and accuracy of a CAAD system while also benefit from ambiguous freehand input directly from users. This can greatly improve the interaction between designers and current computer-aided architectural design systems.
vol 2:5c_b >   Martin Tamke
Crossing The Media
  An open-ended, diversified and critical approach of architectural design, using different form of ideas representation might offer best chances to gain new spatial solutions. Today's most forward architects and designer are aware of this and make full use of physical and digital media during the process of design. During the summer term 2004 the experiment 'Crossing the Media' took place at the Technical University of Braunschweig. The main goal of this practical oriented seminar has been the exploration of the interface between analogue and digital Media within the design process. Both techniques, analogue and digital, were used in an experimental way and their interaction and adaptability in the field of architecture was analyzed. The work examines the possibility of a consistent integration of digital and physical representation in a design process and the individual benefits of each. In order to achieve this, we made up a stringent line of digital-analogue and analogue-digital (DA-AD) Technologies for our design experiment. During the examination we focused especially on the creative potential of the techniques used, their interaction and adaptability in the field of architecture. Hence one of the goals of the occupation with the digital analogue interfaces was the examination of the emerging shift within the structure during the process, the imprints of technology. This paper describes the workflow and tools that were used, our practical experiences with analogue digital interface and the emerging questions and impulses to architects future work and theory. The discovered limitations and consequences of interfaces between the analogue and digital realm of design and their creative chances will be revealed. We share results which we think are helpful to others, and we highlight areas where further research is necessary.
vol 2:5c_c >   Ching-Hui Huang
Interactions between space and digital design media: A case study of physical space
  The rapid developments of digital design media have impacted many aspects of architecture design, such as design process, presentation and communication. This paper focuses on the study of interactions between physical space and digital design media, and proposes a preliminary interactive framework between them. This research proposes a preliminary sense-of-space oriented framework, which indicates the crucial interactive elements and properties of physical space and digital design media.
vol 2:5c_d >   Yang-Ting Shen, Tay-Sheng Teng
Personal Mobile Device for Situated Interaction
  The objective of the paper is to explore how the personal mobile devices help the user to interact with the space and get the personal service. We embed the RFID tag in PDA for the sake of identifying by the space. The space adapts itself to fit the user's need by reading the data of the electronic tag. And the user uses PDA to interact with the space and record the interactive experience. We establish an interactive scenario between the user and the space to experiment how the system work.
vol 2:5c_e >   Mi-Yun Kim, Jin-Won Choi
The Design Factors for Smart Shops with the Ubiquitous Technology
  As space has become gradually intelligent because of the innovation of ubiquitous technology, the space itself is becoming one huge interface media, and the way digital technology intervenes in space design comes to be various. An intelligent space means that physical substances interact with their users as well as the inernal components beyond the concept of materials. However, current researches and developments in the relationship between the technology and spaces have not been immensely done. This paper renders the space applications including architertural factors, environmental factors and user behaviours in commercial areas. We also study how the future commercial spaces in ubiquitous computing environment will interact with space design. Finally the methods for developing 'Smart Shop Models' are discussed.
vol 2:5c_f >   Jumphon Lertlakkhanakul, Ilju Lee, Miyun Kim, Jin Won Choi
Using the Mobile Augmented Reality Techniques for Construction Management
  In this paper we attempt to develop a new system called 'C-Navi' for construction site simulation and management system. By integrating AR technology with mobile computing, the new system will extend the abilities of AR systems to be implemented in large outdoor space. The concept of 4D CAD system is utilized by integrating related information and displaying them in the time-based visualization approach. Our system could help with decision making and also act as a tool for improved communications between project partners.
vol 2:5c_g >   Hue-Ku Shih
Social Events Awareness System in Design Environment: An Interactive Public Information Services Provider
  This paper is an application of its main project, 'Interactive Public Information Services Provider in Design Environment'. The project is based on the ID sensing technology and network services to support the social events, formal/informal communication and data communication'etc. In the paper we emphasize on how we can support social events in pervasive computing method. An architect indicates that informal communication is the key of creative ideas in design environment. (Henn, 2002) Here we describe how the concept of the main project can support the awareness of social events in design environment. We introduce the awareness system into three parts: 1. Scenarios 2. Parts in the framework 3. The design issues in the system.
vol 2:6a_a >   Jose R. Kos, Tereza C. Malveira Araujo, Jose S. Cabral Filho, Eduardo Mascarenhas Santos, Marcelo Tramontano
Low-tech remote collaborative design studios
  This paper aims to analyze Virtual Design Studios in big countries such as India, China and Brazil with great disparities between the schools of architecture and cultural diversity within their territories. Two VDS experiences with Brazilian institutions based the paper's arguments. Limitation of equipment, bandwidth or available tools should not impede the organization of collaborative experiences. Instead, they should ground the strategies for the implementation of those experiences. Several free tools that are available on the Internet and which the students were used to, where chosen for the communication between the participants. Limited resources were not an obstacle to gain what we have considered the most important benefit of our experience: the exchange between students and faculty towards the recognition of the other participants' different cultures, traditions and knowledge, allowing a better understanding of their own context.
vol 2:6a_b >   Kai-Tzu Lu, Teng-Wen Chang
Experience Montage in the Virtual Space
  According to three experimental virtual spaces above, the key factor for experience montage is identified 3D collage. General speaking, the theory of montage describes the connection of space and time. Time is a phenomenon of connection of points. Within 3D virtual space, the influence of Experience Montage generated in the experiments above is examined through the Exploration model (representation + rules + memory + policy = search exploration) proposed by Woodbury in 1996. Through browsing and reading, the originally intact virtual space is dissected into pieces and corners. By duplicated, dismantled and reorganized over this dissected space, a new personalized virtual space is then modeled. As a continuation of previous analysis, latter stages of the study use the Exploration model to explain anew the connection among the representation, rules, memory, and policy of Experience Montage.
vol 2:6a_c >   Bige Tuncer, Kzer Ciftcioglu, Sevil Sariyildiz, Michael Cumming
Intelligent design support
  Design is a complex process that is information and communication intensive. In a design context, the use of knowledge technologies can assist designers in making informed design decisions. This paper reports on an educational experiment that implements an intelligent urban design aid. This experiment facilitates students to do research in a systematic way by using ICKT methods, techniques and tools in order to improve the quality of their urban design. We outline the process, describe the intelligent techniques, discuss the results of the educational experiment, and explore the approach's potential for real-life design practices.
vol 2:6a_d >   Ting-Han Chen, Teng-Wen Chang
Towards an Instant Collaboration Environment: Designing Ambient Interfaces for Social Awareness and Collaboration
  For geographically separated designers, moving into collaboration is sometimes distracting because it requires complex negotiation in between colleagues. This research explores the practicability of moving from social awareness of remote colleagues into physical collaboration in an instant but unobtrusive way. A framework of 'Instant Collaboration' has been proposed with characteristics identified, and a demonstrational prototype is implemented to examine the computability and usability of the proposed framework.
vol 2:6b_c >   Patrick H. T. Janssen, John H. Frazer, Ming-Xi Tang
A Computational System for Generating and Evolving Building Designs
  This paper describes a generative evolutionary design system that aims to fulfil two key requirements: customisability and scalability. Customisability is required in order to allow the design team to incorporate personalised and idiosyncratic rules and representations. Scalability is required in order to allow large complex designs to be generated and evolved without performance being adversely affected. In order to fulfil these requirements, a computational architecture has been developed that differs significantly from existing evolutionary systems. In order to verify the feasibility of the this architecture, the generative process capable of creating three-dimensional building models has been implemented and demonstrated.
vol 2:6b_d >   Ganapathy Mahalingam
A Computational Model of A Sensor Network for the Optimization and Control of Acoustical Performance Criteria in Spatial Enclosures
  The technology of nanoblock-based circuits is enabling the creation of ultra-small sensors that can transmit their location and readings using radio frequencies. This technology has the potential to enhance the optimization of environmental performance criteria in spatial enclosures, using a wide range of actuators that function at different scales. The combination of such ultra-small sensors with actuators will enable the creation of spatial enclosures that are complex adaptive systems, which dynamically optimize the various environmental performance criteria for the enclosures. Defining a model for the optimization process in these systems presents significant challenges. This paper will set out a model for the use of ultra-small sensor systems in optimizing environmental performance criteria in spatial enclosures, especially acoustical performance criteria.
vol 2:6c_a >   Xiao Zhang
A Study of Daylight Environments with Spherical Mirrors
  A spherical mirror has the ability to record all information of the surrounding environment and its map offers an ideal 2D picture to study 3D environments. This paper tries to study the daylight environment by using spherical mirror maps, which can be acquired from photography or computer simulation. Both quantitative and qualitative evaluations of daylight in architecture are discussed and applications of spherical mirror maps in daylight design are proposed.
vol 2:6c_c >   Mauro Chiarella
Parametric Surfaces And Architecture: Concepts, Design, and Production
  By incorporating parametric surfaces and spline entities into the shape modeling computer systems, new design and production graphic tools have been created in the conceptual and poetic field of architecture; thus allowing an intuitive approach to the fast production of complex shapes with a minimum amount of data and specific knowledge. The analogous production systems (constrained by the material resources and constructive procedures present in the local existing technologies) are challenged by design and virtual simulation systems, suggesting new relationships between the architectural features and their representation: the creation of a symbolic and dynamic information space where the representation affects the identity of what is being represented. Taking into account this current challenge mentioned above, we have decided to work in the mixture, without reciprocal exclusions or substitutions, proposing some work alternatives to approach the issue under discussion in the Architecture Workshop.
vol 2:6c_d >   Rudi Stouffs, Bige Tuncer, Ernst Janssen Groesbeek Jan Kooistra, Ellen Sjoer
The use of metadata as a means to improve the quality of design: results from education
  We present the results from the evaluation of the use of KeySet in the architectural BSc curriculum at Delft University of Technology. KeySet is a metadata system that provides data with a unique key consisting of a combination of keywords according to four dimensions. These dimensions constitute the qualities that data possess at different levels. In KeySet, assigning keywords to data is considered a form of claiming these qualities that the data possess.
vol 2:6c_e >   Julio Bermudez, Albert C. Smith, Seth Striefel
Visualizing the Invisible: Digital Studies on Representing Non-Visual Architectural Experiences
  During the last several years our architecture school has gone through the process of fully digitizing the studios. We, as faculty are learning much about the advantages and difficulties of teaching architectural design in this new electronic environment. This knowledge has been included in our development of a beginning design communications course that offers an important improvement in regards to our changing teaching situation. This short paper presents one project from this course that introduces our students to the use of digital media for dealing with non-visual and subjective content 'something quite contrary to what is usually associated with the teaching of digital graphics. We believe that this project breaks new ground for teaching and investigating the nature of computer graphics and through it into the very essence of our experience and understanding of architecture.