The terms of reference specified that the Committee shall “examine the entire issue of redevelopment of the area known as ‘LBZ’ keeping in view the historical character of the area, optimum utilization of the land resources and to plan for the coming century. The Committee shall examine the entire issue in depth and come up with suitable recommendations for the LBZ area”.


At the outset the issues were framed as follows:

“The historical imperative should be examined in the light of our (Indian) point of view. Conservation of this important part of our heritage should be seen as one step in the evolution of architecture in the Indian sub-continent. Our view of time and the perspective generated by the very long period of evolution of our culture requires primary consideration. We cannot ‘mummify’ our historic monuments and built environment. The best examples need to be preserved, but the bulk of our historic environment is best allowed to be modified to suit contemporary requirements. The matrix of our economy is already over burdened with the urgent requirements of the majority of our population for whom survival is a critical concern. We therefore can ill afford to waste any opportunity for economic betterment of the majority.

Lutyens Bungalow Zone is a prime example of under-utilization of land resources of the capital city of Delhi. There are certainly some buildings and elements of the built environment in this Zone, which need sensitive preservation. These include Rashtrapati Bhavan, the Central Secretariat Complex, the Central Vista and Rajpath ( with India Gate and erstwhile princely houses at the eastern end of Rajpath), one example each of the different type of bunglows for accommodation of government officials, land-marks like Connaught Place, religious buildings, etc. Excluding these exemplary buildings, the remaining bungalows occupy the majority of the land area and do not contribute to the evolution of our heritage.

The network of roads and the vegetation also contribute an essential elements of the historic character of the area. The roads were fortunately designed for significant upgradation and now have spare capacity for carrying traffic. The trees need attention as many of these are too old, but appropriate new plantation can extend the vegetation character of the area.

What is required is an architectural vision which will extend, and to some extent, replace Lutyens’ vision of ‘Imperial Delhi’. A contemporary scheme which respects the existing character yet evolves further to cater for the urgent requirements of today is certainly a possibility. Such a scheme would need to built in administrative safeguards, which can restrain real-estate speculation.”


The meetings of the Committee have generated a detailed discussion on the various factors which affect planning norms and controls for this area. The initial study/survey of the area has led to the following diagnosis:

  1. The LBZ area (26 sq km) constitutes a tiny fraction of the area of Metropolitan Delhi (3179 sq km). Yet the LBZ area can be characterized as a rare jewel set at the centre of the complex and chaotic urban framework of the National Capital Region. The LBZ area houses the seat of the national government and contains the official residences of the President of India, the Prime Minister and all other Union Ministers, Members of Parliament, seniormost members of the judiciary, seniromost officers of the armed forces and the civil services, as well as housing important national public institutions. Thus the LBZ area relates not just to the city of Delhi but to the whole Indian nation.
  2. The LBZ area was panned as the capital of British India and laid out according to the very generous standards befitting an Imperial city. The layout designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens in 1910-1915 A.D. was derived from the best traditions of the European renaissance, and was further enhanced by an elaborate design of plantation composed of a carefully choosen variety of indigenous trees and other vegetation, maturing over time to grace what has become one of the most green capital cities in the world.
  3. The partition of India in 1947 brought a sudden increase in the population of Delhi due to the great migration from West Punjab. In the subsequent decades Delhi has grown exponentially to now become a city of nearly 12 million inhabitants. This pressure of accelerated growth led to the formulation of the first Master Plan for the spatial development of Delhi in 1960. However that part of the city laid out as ‘Imperial Delhi’ (of which the lutyens Bungalow Zone forms a substantial part) was designated a special area for which the zonal development plan could not be formulated. Since 1970 several government committees have been constituted to examine the issue of redevelopment within this special area. These have been unanimous in emphasizing the unique tree studded character and low density of buildings in this area, but they have not described the model which would allow this area to respond to the dynamics of contemporary urban life. Subsequently in 1988 the Union Government imposed substantial restrictions, virtually amounting to a freeze on redevelopment in this area.
  4. In the last ten years while these restrictions have been in force the anomalies inherent in the urban framework of the LBZ area have become more pronounced. The density of habitation and intensity of building in all areas surrounding the Lutyens Bungalow Zone has increased substantially, thus highlighting the iniquitous nature of the very low density of habitation in the LBZ. The severe restrictions on redevelopment have contributed to isolating the LBZ area from the mainstream of the dynamics of urban growth thus marginalising the process of maintenance of the physical fabric which includes the trees planted 71 to 80 years ago, the underground sewerage and drainage system, other services infrastructure like water supply, electricity distribution and telecommunications network, as well as the bungalows built 60 to 70 years ago. Lack of urban maintenance has led to the proliferation of slums in locations to the bungalows as well as the public buildings have contributed to the degeneration of the carefully designed physical fabric of the LBZ area. Several inappropriate multi-storeyed buildings have also come up in this area in spite of the restrictions imposed on such construction.


In order to evolve a new vision for the city of New Delhi so as to enhance the unique character of the LBZ area, the Committee’s deliberations focused on several key principles to guide redevelopment in this area – These are founded on the over-arching notion that the city should be seen as a high point of human civilization-

The ethos of the city of the future needs to be shifted from a mechanistic and industrial view of urban form to an ecological view -

The vedic concept of “Aranya” interpreted to signify human settlement within the domain of nature, revered as forest, flowing water, and wild life, to be the inspiration -

That clean air and vegetation are integral to built form -

That the development of the arts and the flowering of culture is inherent in urban life –

And that the maintenance of demographic equilibrium should be seen as an essential element of the redevelopment strategy.


In the light of the above observations a series of conceptual maps have been prepared which seek to crystallize the redevelopment strategy.

Map 1 shows the LBZ area within the metropolitan regions of Delhi

Map 2 shows the LBZ are boundary as delineated by the Committee on Lutyens Bungalow Area, New Delhi, February 1993, Constituted by the Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India.

Map 3 distinguishes the characteristics of land within the LBZ area, colour coded as follows: -

  1. Land which is public green and open
  2. Land in use for public institutions, including government and other public offices, cultural institutions, hotels, and protected historic monuments.
  3. Land leased for private residences
  4. Land for markets
  5. Land under government residences (bungalows and other types)
  6. Land under barracks of temporary constructions Certain significant areas outside but contiguous with the LBZ boundary have also been colour coded. These are the river Yamuna, Purana Qila, Pragati Maidan, the area around and including the zoological park east of Mathura Road, and the institutional area developed recently south of Lodi Road. These areas are significant because they have a direct bearing on the strategy for redevelopment in the LBZ area.

Map 4 shows the Central Vista and its landmarks.

This map is taken from the study entitled “Urban Design Form for the Hexagon Central Vista New Delhi” prepared for the Chief Architect CPWD by Kambo Consultants in May 1997.

The significance of this map is that it highlights the schematic geometry of the core of Lutyens’ Plan for New Delhi. The blending of the hexagonal road layout with the ceremonial vista laid out on an orthogonal grid is achieved by the geometry of the diamond shown diagrammatically. This makes it evident that planning controls for the Central Vista should extend to the round-abouts immediately north and south of the Rajpath Janpath crossing and include the area bounded by Raisina Road, part of Ashoka Road, part of Motilal Nehru Marg, and part of Akbar Road.

Map 5 shows an analysis of the LBZ area which identifies sub-zones having similar development characterstics.

This analysis is founded on the proposition that the ordering principles of Lutyens plan are to be retained in their essence, and form the basis for a realistic and sustainable redevelopment strategy.

The core of Lutyens’ layout is the Central Vista along Rajpath, with the presidents Estate on one end and at the other end the public garden framed by the great hexagon of roads, with the National Stadium and the Purana Qila forming the termination of the ceremonial axis. This forms a most imposing and attractive public space which makes New Delhi unique among the capital cities of the world. Extending from the Central Vista the hexagonal road pattern spreads north and south Rajpath distributing traffic on shady avenues lined with regular plantation of indigenous trees.

The Lutyens plan for north of Rajpath originally extended upto the walled city (Asaf Ali Road), but redevelopment excercised of the last 2 decades have completely changes the character of this area, and now the LBZ boundary has receded to Ashoka Road and Feroz Shah Road, also including the Bengali Market area bounded by Tolstoy Marg, Barakhamba Road, Sikandra Road and the railway line.

The area south of Rajpath is, in substantial part, a good representation of Lutyens’ architectural vision. The majority of the bungalows in use as official residences are located here, with Akbar Road serving as the principal axis of this part of the LBZ. It should however be noted that the bungalows of Lutyens’ layout extend south only upto Aurangzeb Road and Safdarjang Road.

On the south-eatern side adjoining the erstwhile princely states’ houses there are also government residncs, but these were designed and built after 1947.

The most important feature which this map highlights is the presence of major public green open areas on three sides of the LBZ. These are the Delhi Ridge on the west adjoining the Presidents Estate; the connected green of Nehru Park, the race course and the Delhi Gymkhana Club, Safdarjang airport, Safdarjang Tomb, and the almost contiguous Lodi Garden on the south; the Delhi Golf Club on the south-east; and on the eastern side across the LBZ boundary along Mathura Road is the large green expanse of the Zoological Garden with the Purana Qila at one end and Humayun Tomb at the other. This resource of green areas is a most valuable asset, not only of the LBZ area but of the entire city of Delhi, because of the oxygen generated here.

We can thus clearly identify two important sub-zones within the LBZ which need immediate attention for preservation, and to restore the damage being done by encroachment and inappropriate building in the absence of a coherent set of development norms.

The first such sub-zone on the map is formed by the area colour coded dark blue and includes the Presidents Estate, the Central Vista, Princes Park, and extends south to include Teen Murti House and bungalows upto the Gymkhana Club, as well as the bungalows between Akbar Road and the Central Vista. This area colour coded light green contains the offices and residences of the highest functionaries of the Union government for whom personal security is a prime necessity. Also this area contains the finest examples of the imperial architecture of Lutyens, and this needs to be maintained in its original form to serve as a heritage treasurehouse – almost as a living museum. This is categorized as sub-zone Grade 1.

The second such sub-zone is the area colour coded dark green on the map and includes the public greens described above, an environmental resource of great value serving as potential forest area within the city, favourably modifying the micro-climate. This is categrized as sub-zone Grade 1a.

The sub-zone south of Akbar Road, which has the Imperial bungalows still in use, forms another type which requires a special set of development norms. The bungalows here occupy 2 to 3 acres of land each. Their gardens as well as buildings are difficult and expensive to maintain, and the service areas behind these plots have degenerated into slums. This area requires an exercise in ‘conservative surgery’ to restore environmental coherence. The area is categorised as sub-zone Grade2.

The zone formed by the remaining area south of part of Prithviraj Road, Aurangzeb Road, Humayun Road and Subramanya Bharti Marg contains mostly privately leased land with residential development. It also contains two large open green areas (Lodi Garden and the Delhi Golf Course, already categorised as Grade 1a) as well as the commercial area of Khan Market and the institutional areas in Lodi Estate which include several high schools and the complex of cultural institutions including and adjacent to the India International Centre. This zone requires norms which would allow for sensitive redevelopment in keeping with the overall character of the LBZ. This is categorised as sub-zone Grade 3.

North of Rajpath and the area which is already identified as sub-zone Grade 1, the area extending upto Ashoka Road, Feroze Shah Road and Sikandra Road contains large sections of institutional development interspersed with residential area for government use as well as some large privately leased residences on Tilak Marg, Bhagwandas Road and Sikandra Road. This zone can also be categorised as sub-zone Grade 3.

The remainder of the LBZ is the area around Bengali Market, bounded by Sikandra Road, part of Barakhamba Road, Tolstoy Marg, and the railway line. This area has characteristics which are quite different from the rest of the LBZ and can be categorised as sub-zone Grade 4.

Map 6 shows the existing public bus network in the LBZ.

The road layout is one of the key determinants of Lutyens’ plan for New Delhi. With the passage of time and the growth of more and more government offices along the Central Vista, there has been a corresponding increase in the number of office-goers daily commuting in and out of the LBZ. This commuter traffic is carried largely by diesel-engine buses of the Delhi Transport Corporation supplemented by a very large number of private contract buses and private vehicles. This traffic now poses an environmental hazard and needs to be rationalised to reduce its adverse impact. The existing pattern of bus routes and the location of the major bus terminals are not consonance with the spatial logic of the Lutyens plan.

Map 7 shows a rationalised version of the public bus network.

The proposal is based on the understanding that the Central Vista should be relieved of major bus commuter traffic by rationalising the location of the bus terminals, which can be distributed on four sides of the office complex stretching from Raisina Hill to Janpath including the North and South Blocks and the ministry buildings like Shastri Bhawan, Nirman Bhawan, etc. This will curtail bus movement across Rajpath while distributing commuters to all sides of the office complex. From the two new terminal locations proposed on Janpath, north and south of Rajpath, there could be a modal shift to a more environment-friendly vehicle type using solar or electric power. These new terminal locations could also become interchange points with the proposed mass rapid transit system for Delhi, now under implementation.

The new routing also ensures that heavy commuter traffic coming in from south of the Central Secretariat does not pass through the heart of the government bungalows on Tughlak Road, Krishna Menon Marg, Akbar Road and Janpath. Commuter destinations are linked to intra-city routes on roads which can be renovated according to traffic engineering principles which promote safety and efficiency. The cross-sections of these roads can be redesigned within the existing right-of-way to improve the flow, speed, and direction of traffic by improved design of the junctions and road surfaces.

Map 8 shows the configuration of roads which can carry high volume traffic to bypass LBZ.

Since the LBZ is at the centre of the Delhi metropolitan area, there is a tendency for cross traffic to use roads within LBZ as a thoroughfare, resulting in unnecessary environmental stress.

The spatial logic of Lutyens’ plan is generated in large measure by the alignment of Rajpath and Janpath. A third important axis is formed now by Akbar Road which connects India Gate with the Race Course Road and Teen Murti Marg roundabout which is an apex of the area where the Prime Minister’s residence is located. The reconfiguration of high volume traffic as proposed in this map can help to enhance the environmental quality along these three principal axes of Lutyens’ New Delhi

Map 9 showsthe sub-zones of LBZ north of Rajpath.

This map shows in detail the land characteristics for the area which has been categorised as sub-zone 3 and 4 according to the analysis presented in Map 5. It is evident that most of the land is under institutional development and privately leased residences. The area around Bengali Market, categorised as sub-zone 4, is quite different in character from the rest of LBZ, and hence the redevelopment strategy here can be devised accordingly. In the area categorised as sub-zone Grade 3, the land under residences for government officials may be redeveloped for mixed use in keeping with the existing character.

Map 10 shows a proposal for the Princes Park which was designed by Lutyens as the termination of the Central Vista.

The eastern end of the Central Vista was designed to contain the palaces of the State princes around a hexagonal public garden. At the centre of the hexagon was placed a statue of King George V and next to this was the War Memorial Arch, now known as India Gate. Terminating the east-west axis, starting at the Viceroys House (now Rashtrapati Bhawan) on Raisina Hill, was placed an open-air stadium intended for public events. The entire composition was carefully framed to provide a symbolic linkage between the ruler and her subjects. Of the eight plots allotted to the princes only five were graced by stately houses. The other three were occupied by army barracks constructed during the war of 1939 – 45. Barracks were also built in the open areas behind and on the sides of the stadium. Although the barracks were intended as a temporary measure, they continue to exist till the present and have now become a complete anachronism. This park forms an integral part of the Central Vista, and thus of the core of Lutyens’ New Delhi. The proposal shown on this map is an exercise in restoring the area to its original purpose of being a public space dedicated to the people of India. The princely houses can be restored to their original state and used as cultural institutions of national importance. The stadium can be renovated for use as a venue for state functions. The areas under the temporary barracks should be cleared and developed as a series of public gardens designed around themes of national significance. The area behind the stadium and adjoining Mathura Road, which is presently used in part by the National Sports Club of India, can be cleared of barracks and the whole area dedicated to sports activities of appropriate scale. The central hexagon is proposed to be landscaped more intensively in the classical manner of its original design.


The sub-zonal categorisation of the conceptual maps highlights the importance of a critical re-examination of the government residential sub-zone defined as Grade 2. The triangulated road pattern in this area is essential Lutyens planning, and all the roads have avenue plantation of indigenous trees which clearly defines the environmental character. Applying the principle of “conservative surgery” to this area we ensure that the tree-lined roads which define the essential character of Lutyens Bungalow Zone are not altered. However the environmental fabric within these triangles of roads, which is in varying states of degradation, can be renewed. The principle of renewal is social equity and conformity with contemporary norms, so that its functional logic as government officials’ residences is extended to the future.

The service areas behind the bungalows are not visible from the main roads and it is here that slums are proliferating. The bungalow plots vary in size but are mostly between 2 and 3 acres each, with bungalows having covered area varying from 250 sq m to 1100 sq m. The interior planning of most of the bungalows is inappropriate for contemporary living requirements which has resulted in unauthorised additions and alterations. The outhouses with each bungalow are also not compatible with todays requirements and have become generators of slum development. Rationalising the land area per bungalow, the built space per bungalow, and the pattern of service personnel housing is thus a critical necessity. The features to be preserved are the trees and the bungalows on the roundabouts which maintain the continuity of the tree-lined road system.

In order to understand in detail and test the validity of the principles outlined above, a series of diagrams have been prepared showing the existing and proposed land distribution in the various pockets marked A to G on the key map.

Diagram 1 shows existing land use in Pocket A

This is bounded by Safdarjung Road, Akbar Road, Tughlak Road and Aurangzeb Road, and is entirely government controlled. The breakdown of existing use is as follows :-

Area of pocket 273560 sq.m.
Number of bungalows 32
Area under bungalows 208995 sq.m. (76.4%)
Area under institutional use  
1) Indira Gandhi Memorial 31350 sq.m
2) Police Station 5500 sq.m
Total 36850 (13.5%)
Area for Common Services 8640 sq.m. (3.2%)

Diagram 2 shows proposed land use in Pocket A

The land under bungalows is re-allocated to reduce the average plot size to 2000 sq.m. All plots are retained along the main roads whose character stays unchanged, while the land released is consolidated within the plotted periphery and around the common service area. The bungalow on the roundabout is maintained in its original state but converted to institutional use. The breakdown of proposed land use is as follows:-

Number of bungalows 62
Area under bungalows 135006 sq.m. (49.4%)
Area under institutional use  
1) Indira Gandhi Memorial 31350 sq.m.
2) Police Station 5500 sq.m.
3) Roundabout bungalow 9360 sq.m.
Total 46210 sq.m. (16.9%)
Area for common use 78722 sq.m. (28.78%)

This area of 7.87 Hectares is large enough to be comprehensively redesigned for more appropriate purpose. It may be useful to note that the total area of Rabindra Nagar, which has 120 dwellings for government officials, is 9.6 Ha.

Diagram 3 shows existing land use in Pocket B

This is bounded by Safdarjung Road, Aurangzeb Road, and Tughlak Road. This area is also entirely government controlled. However, a noteworthy feature of this pocket is that it contains Tughlak Crescent which is one of the most attractive examples of classical layout within the LBZ

The breakdown of existing land use is as follows:-

Area of pocket 190980 sq.m.
Number of bungalows 22
Area under bungalows 154450 sq.m. (80.9%)
Area for common services 8100 sq.m. (4.2%)

Diagram 4 shows proposed land use in Pocket B

Similar to the strategy for pocket A, the land under bungalows is re-allocated. However, the 7 bungalows forming Tughlak Crescent are converted to institutional use (for appropriate cultural institutions). The breakdown of proposed land use is as follows:-

Number of bungalows 32
Area under bungalows 59670 sq.m (31.2%)
Area under cultural institions 40600 sq.m. (47.5%)
Area for common use 90710 sq.m. (47.5%)

Thus an area of 9 hectares is made available for comprehensive redesign within this pocket.

Diagram 5 shows existing land use in Pocket C

This is bounded by Tughlak Road, Aurangzeb Road and Tees January Marg. There is fix of government bungalows and privately leased residential plots in this pocket. One of the private houses has been converted to a museum (Gandhi Smriti) and the private house on the roundabout was converted to an hotel over 40 years ago. The breakdown of existing land use is as follows:-

Area of pocket 158000 sq.m
Number of bungalows  
1) government 9
2) private 13
Area under bungalows  
1) government 64136 sq.m. (40.6%)
2) private 51308 sq.m. (32.5%)
Area under institutional use  
1) Gandhi Smriti 20925 sq.m
2) Claridges Hotel 9580 sq.
Total 30505 sq.m. (19.3%)
Area for common services 4050 sq.m. (2.6%)

Diagram 6 shows proposed land use in Pocket C

The privately leased plots do not form a part of the proposal to start with. The government controlled land is re-allocated following the same strategy as for pockets A and B. The two bungalows on the roundabouts are proposed for institutional use. The breakdown of proposed land use is as follows:-

Number of bungalows  
1) government 12
2) private 13
Area under bungalows  
1) government 31800 sq.m. (20.1%)
2) private 51308 sq.m. (32.5%)
Area under institutional use  
1) Gandhi Smriti 20925 sq.m.
2) Claridges Hotel 9580 sq.m.
Total 30505 sq.m. (19.3%)
Area for common use 29300 sq.m. (18.5%)

Thus 2.93 Hectares is made available for common use.

Diagram 7 shows existing land use in Pocket D and E

Pocket D is bounded by Tees January Marg, Janpath and Akbar Road. Pocket E is bounded by Janpath, Motilal Nehru Marg and Aurangzeb Road. There is a mix of government bungalows and privately leased plots in both pockets. The breakdown of existing land use is as follows:-

  D E
Area of Pocket 158500 sq.m 158500 sq.m.
Number of bungalows    
1) government 11 10
2) private 1 7
Area under bungalows    
1) government 120100 sq m (75.8%) 78400 sq.m (49.5%)
2) private 6300 sq.m ( 4.0%) 70135 sq.m (44.2%)
Area under institutional use    
1) National Defence College 10700 sq.m. nil
2) Hungarian Cultural Centre 9500 sq.m. nil
  Total 20200 sq.m. (12.7%)
Area for common services nil 2040 sq.m. (1.3%)

Diagram 8 shows proposed land use in Pocket D and E

A similar strategy for land re-allocation is followed as for pocket C. The breakdown of proposed land use is as follow:-

  D E
Number of bungalows    
1) government 18 12
2) private 1 7
Area under bungalows    
1) government 48600 sq m (30.7%) 32400 sq.m (20.4%)
2) private 6300 sq.m ( 4.0%) 70135 sq.m (44.2%)
Area under institutional use    
1) National Defence College 10700 sq.m. nil
2) Hungarian Cultural Centre 9500 sq.m. nil
3) Roundabout bungalows 18000 sq.m 11000 sq.m.
  ---------------------- ----------------------
Total 38200 sq.m. (24.1%) 11000 sq.m. (6.9%)
Area for common use 64500 sq.m (40.7%) 39900 sq.m. (25.2%)

Diagram 9 shows existing land use in Pocket F

This is bounded by Motilal Nehru Marg, Akbar Road and Mansingh Road. There is a mix of government bungalows and privately leased plots in this pocket as well. The breakdown of existing land use is as follows:-

Area of pocket 156000 sq.m.
Number of bungalows  
1) government 8
2) private 4
Area of bungalows  
1) government 94700 sq.m (60.7%)
2) private 43000 sq.m. (27.6%)
Area under institutional use 10500 sq.m. (6.7%)
Area for common services nil

Diagram 10 shows proposed land use in Pocket F

Following a similar strategy as for Pockets C,D and E, the land re-allocation proposed has the following breakdown:-

Number of bungalows  
1) government 15
2) private 4
Area of bungalows  
1) government 38100 sq.m (24.4%)
2) private 43000 sq.m. (27.6%)
Area under institutional use  
1) existing 10500 sq.m.
2) roundabout bungalow 9700 sq.m.
Total 20200 sq.m. (12.9%)
Area for common use 43400 sq.m. (27.8%)

Diagram 11 shows existing land use in Pocket G

This is bounded by Tughlak Road, Aurangzeb Road, Southend Road and Prithviraj Road. Aurangzeb Lane divides this pocket into 2 parts, one on its east which has only privately leased plots, and the other on its west which has a mix of government bungalows and private plots. The breakdown of existing land use is as follows:-

Area east of Aurangzeb Lane 99750 sq.m.
Number of privately leased plots 17
Area under private plots 87500 sq.m.
Common services area 7500 sq.m
Area west of Aurangzeb Lane 210500 sq.m.
Number of bungalows  
1) government 22
2) private 9
Area under bungalows  
1) government 107700 sq.m. (51.2%)
2) private 66275 sq.m. (31.5%)
Area under institutional use nil
Area for common services 16500 sq.m. (7.8%)

Diagram 12 shows proposed land use in Pocket G.

The proposal is only for the area west of Aurangzeb Lane where a similar strategy is applied as for the other pockets. The breakdown of proposed land use in this area is as follow:-

1) government 16
2) private 9
Area under bungalows  
1) government 43200 sq.m. (20.5%)
2) private 66275 sq.m. (31.5%)
Area under institutional use  
(roundabout bungalow) 3000 sq.m. (1.4%)
Area for common use 89500 sq.m. (42.5%)
Pockets A to G – Summary of proposed re-allocation of land under government bungalows
Total area of pockets 126.6 Ha
Number of privately leased plots 51
Area under privately leased plots 32.5 Ha
Existing number of government bungalows- 112
Existing area under government bungalows- 92.6 Ha
Proposed area under government bungalows- 167
Number of proposed bungalows plots for  
Cultural institutions 16
Area under proposed cultural institutions 12.83 Ha
Proposed total area for common use 40.5 Ha


The rationalisation and re-allocation of land under government bungalow plots is further examined in two detail diagrams. These evaluate the building possiblitics on the proposed government bungalow plots and the privately leased plots. Since the two kinds of plots are in contiguous locations within the pockets A to G, it is important to ensure compatibility in the redevelopment norms for both.

Detail Diagram 1 shows a typical government bungalow plot as proposed in diagrams 1 to 12

The main bungalow is proposed with a built area of 500 square metres planned on ground and part first floor. The ground floor coverage is taken as 350 sq.m., with the remaining 150 sq.m. on the first floor. The bungalow is planned with an office suite attached, but with a separate entrance.

The service unit at the rear of the plot is proposed to be designed as a contemporary version of the traditional Indian ‘haveli’, with living accommodation for 10 – 15 service personnel (including security guards) arranged on two floors around a courtyard. This would allow an enclosed usable open space for the service personnel, containing spillover of their activities to the adjoining bungalow garden and the service road. The total built area of the service unit is taken to be 150 sq.m., with 90 sq.m. on the ground floor and 60 sq.m. on the first.

This proposal generates an FAR on the plot of 25, with a ground coverage of 17%.

The projected footprint of the buildings is small enough to allow the existing trees to be retained, and there is a large area available for the garden on all sides of the bungalow. The relationship of the proposed bungalow to the main road is similar in character and spirit with the original design of the Lutyens plan.

Detail Diagram 2 examines a redevelopment option on a typical privately leased plot.

The assumption underlying the redevelopment proposal is that some owners of these plots may not be able to afford the maintenance of the old houses and extensive gardens which they have received as a legacy from the colonial past. Yet the redevelopment of these plots should be in keeping with the neighbouring government bungalow plots.

We have proposed in the preceding detail diagram for the government bungalow plots an FAR of 25 with a ground coverage of 17%. Extending this logic and allowing for a marginal increase in FAR, the proposal for private redevelopment is based on a scenario where a big house for the owners extended family is planned alongwith a cluster of apartments. The entire development is only two floors high, with car parking and service personnel units arranged in the area between the two types of housing, and a large setback of 20 metres along the main road to ensure the continuity of the gardens in front. The setback on the sides and rear is also proposed to be large enough to allow the existing mature trees to be retained. The proposal thus shows a main house of built area of 1500 sq.m. planned on two floors, a cluster of 8 appartments of 250 sq.m. each on two floors around its own garden, service units in the ‘haveli’ pattern of built area of 300 sq.m. distributed on two floors, and a common parking area in between for 25 to 30 cars. The approach to the main house is common with that for the apartments, thus maintaining undisturbed the character of the main road. The complete proposal generates an FAR of 33 with a ground coverage of 15%

8. Recommendations:

From the proceeding diagnosis and conceptual propositions, a set of specific recommendations emerge:

  1. The Lutyens Bungalow Zone be further categorised in to sub-zones 1,1A,2,3, and 4 as shown on Map 5.
  2. sub-zone 1 be treated as a national heritage area, and a special management agency (SMA) be constituted to undertake an architectural conservation exercise to restore the building and landscape to the original concept of Lutyens’ architectural design and city plan for New Delhi.
  3. sub-zone 1A be designated as reserved forest to serve as an essential environmental resource for the capital city. All temporary constructions (barracks and hutments) in this sub-zone to be removed and only recreational facilities be permitted in this area in future.
  4. In sub-zone 2 a redevelopment exercise to be undertaken by the CPWD in association with the new SMA recommended in item 2) above, according to the strategy proposed in the conceptual diagrams which form section 6 of this report. The essential planning controls for this area would be a maximum FAR of 25, maximum ground coverage of 20%, and maximum, height of structures to be 2 storeys, Basements may be permitted subject to provisions given in a new set of building bye-laws to be specially framed for this area. The special bye-laws to also specify architectural controls.
  5. In sub-zone 3 where a considerable amount of redevelopment has already taken place subsequent to and not in conformity with Lutyens’ original design, redevelopment be permitted within a new set of planning controls to be devised after comprehensive urban form exercises have been undertaken. These exercises to be monitored by the new SMA.
  6. Sub-zone 4 may be excluded from the special controls and allowed to be redeveloped as per the Master Plan for Delhi.
  7. The following specify provision for sub-zone 1 are indicated:-
    1. The area bounded by Teen Murti Marg, Race Course Road, and Kushak Nallah be developed as the Vice-President’s and Prime Minister’s Estate, with the existing Jawaharlal Nehru Memorial Museum in Teen Murti House being retained. As a consequence the existing Vice-President’s House on 6 Maulana Azad Road to be relocated. The new VP & PM Estate proposed has a land area of 33 Ha, out of which Teen Murti House with its grounds occupies an area of 11 Ha. On the remaining 22 Ha a comprehensive redesign exercise may be undertaken to fulfill the present and future requirements of the two State residences alongwith their associated outbuildings.
    2. The area on the south side of the South Block of the Central Secretariat be cleared of temporary barracks and hutments. The triangle of land formed by Dalhousie Road, Rajaji Marg, and Thyagaraj Marg be earmarked for the new Naval Headquarters. The 2 triangles of land on the southern end of Vijay Chowk, which are symmetrical with 2 similar triangles on its northern end where Parliament House which is falling short of accommodation require for the immediate future.
    3. No new office buildings be built along Rajpath. The vacant plot opposite the National Museum on the crossing o Janpath and Maulana Azad Road be reserved for a cultural institution of national importance, as was originally conceived in the Lutyens plan. The efforts at present to locate the External Affairs Ministry’s office building on this plot be immediately stopped. The other plot along Rajpath (6 Maulana Azad Road) which will fall vacant with the relocation of the Vice-President’s House to be similarily reserved for a cultural institution of national importance.
    4. The triangles of land on the north and south of Janpath crossing Rajpath, the one on the north bounded by Raisina Road, Ashoka Road and Dr Rajendra Prasad Road, and that on the south bounded by Motilal Nehru Marg, Akbar Road and Maulana Azad Road, form an integral part of the Central Vista planned by Lutyens, as shown on Map 4 of this report. These two triangles should have their land use converted to institutional, to accommodate essential services and overspill of facilities required by the Ministry offices existing at present along Rajpath. These areas are also to accommodate new commuter terminals as proposed in Map 7 of this report. The present Master Plan proposal of widening Dr Rajendra Prasad Road to a right-of-way of 200 metres be modified. The proposal for significant roads shown on Map 8 of this report to be referred for traffic reorganization in LBZ.
    5. The erstwhile Princes Park around India Gate and the Hexagon be restored as public gardens as described in the proposal shown conceptually on Map 10 of this report
    6. the purview of the new SMA be extended beyond the LBZ to cover the residential area of Lodi Colony south of Lodi Road. This area requires comprehensive redevelopment to cater to the residential requirements of the extension of the central government offices in the new institutional area south of Lodi Road, which has a direct bearing on the redevelopment within LBZ.
  8. Detailed technical studies are required to be conducted in order to ensure that redevelopment within the LBZ is framed according to the highest standards of environmental planning, traffic engineering, and architectural design befitting the national capital. These studies to be commissioned by the new SMA recommended in item 2) above.

The constitution of the Special Management Agency is a pre-requisite to an implementation regime emerging out of the redevelopment strategy outlined in this report

M N Ashish Ganju
December 1998