Definition of Concept Development Plan
The Concept Development Plan (CDP) is the core statutory document within the proposed Archaeological Park Legislation (now Charter) confined to the development and conservation of the area of Kangla Fort Archaeological Park as per Gazette Notification 515. It is a plan for programmed action and integrated management within the overall framework of the existing system of governance. Through this document it is possible to protect the heritage values of Kangla Fort from the earliest historical layer to the British layer. It is a working plan, which is a continuous process that is monitored and reviewed regularly and commitment on part of the Manipur Government along with good management is the key to its implementation. The various aspects of core management have already been described as has the need to evolve an additional system of management of cultural resources (refer Chapter 4). The responsibilities and roles of various agencies that will be involved will be described in the section on Integrated Management (refer Chapter 7) where the new cultural resource management and required modification of existing management have been described.
Every CDP begins with the Statement of Significance (refer Chapter 1) of the site for which the plan is being prepared, forming the reference point for all decisions regarding the site. The cultural significance of the resource is integral to every CDP as every action taken is consciously designed not to alter or mar it. For the Kangla Fort Archaeological Park, the Statement of Significance is embodied within the Kangla Charter.
Jurisdiction of the CDP
The delineation of the boundaries of a heritage resource are crucial to its protection and management under the CDP. The boundaries for the protected area of the Kangla Fort Archaeological Park is as per Gazette notification 515 i.e. including the outer moat and Kekru Pat comprises an area of 236.84 acres for the Archaeological Park. River Imphal on the east, Yairipok road on south, the National Highway 39 on the north and the Kangla Park on west today comprise the other boundaries of the Park. The area within this boundary has to be secured under the Park Management. The Kangla Charter and the CDP are applicable to the area within the boundaries mentioned above. (Refer Dwg. No. 08)
Redefinition of Kangla Fort as an Archaeological Park
Kangla fort forms the core of the central area of the municipality of Imphal. The entire Kangla fort existing today is the area located between River Imphal to its east and three master plan roads to the north, west and south. This area has been shown on the Master plan as a ‘Regional Park’. The concept of an ‘Archaeological Park’ is the most appropriate definition because of its inherent and obvious cultural and archaeological significance.1 The existing remains of the archaeological, architectural and cultural resources, which have been identified and inventoried, further prove this point.
The assumption is that with the new definition, ‘Archaeological Park’ will safeguard the cultural resources within the existing legal parameters, and to bring it into an effective management process. The intention is to ‘protect and preserve’ and ‘restore and reuse’ the various Manipuri and British period buildings for different purposes of interpretation and reuse. A more detailed description on the impact of the State Monuments Act and the Town Planning Act on the Archaeological park has already been discussed in the section on Resolving Existing Legislation (refer Chapter 5).
To enable protection measures for the heritage in Kangla Fort it is necessary to change the nomenclature of the Fort within the Master Plan for Imphal - from Regional Park (RP) to Regional Park –Archaeological Park or Regional Park (sub category - Archaeological Park). The Town Planning Department has already notified this change. As a follow up the change has to be entered in Land use plan, 2011, the new notation for the area should be [RP-AP] or KAP.
Insert Drawing No : 08 here
Land Ownership, Land use and Activities:
It is imperative that the Cantonment Act 1889 is repealed and the land title of Kangla Fort given to the State of Manipur. The Assam Rifles have to move to the new campus constructed for them outside Imphal which is as of 2003 almost ready for occupation. This move is essential if the Concept Development Plan and Archaeological Park Proposal have to be realized, because at present the Assam Rifles occupy significant areas and buildings within the fort which need to be reused as cultural resources as part of the CDP.
The presently approved land use of the area zoned as the ‘Regional Park’ in the Master Plan for Imphal is only for recreation purposes. The existing building uses for military have been mostly reused in the CDP as museums and offices. A major part of the Fort is to remain under archaeological protection and cannot be altered. Only controlled usage is permitted for visitor amenities in such areas as per the CDP. Specific building uses are indicated in the CDP with specific recreational uses.
CDP as Kangla Fort Archaeological Park Scheme
The Master Plan for Greater Imphal, a statutory document has been prepared by the Chief Planner of the State under the provisions of the Manipur Town and Country Planning Act, was approved by the government on September 1, 1994 for the period 1991-2011. The Greater Imphal Planning and Development authority is to promote and secure the development of the Greater Imphal Planning area (135.29 sq.km) according to the Master plan, the Zonal / Sub-zonal plan and Development Schemes.
- Hence the Kangla Fort Archaeological Park Concept Development Plan will be the prepared as a development scheme for the area of Kangla Fort (as per Gazette notification 515) under Provisions of Chapter 5 of the MTCP.75 Act. Thus the Kangla Fort Archaeological Park Scheme can be passed under the MCTP 75 Act.
- The Manipur Town and Country Planning Act 75 has provisions for approval of Development Schemes and the due process of public notice period for the people to file objections and suggestions will be followed.
- The Kangla Fort Archaeological Park Concept Development Plan will be implemented as a Statutory Development Scheme within the framework of the Manipur Town and Country Planning Act’ 75.
Protection of Cultural Resources:
The Kangla Charter (refer Chapter 5) protects the cultural resources that are part of the Cultural Resource Database (refer Chapter 3) comprehensively. The spatial dimensions of the Archaeological Park as a cultural resource entity and Sectors with heritage contents are to be protected by the Town Planning Act. The heritage contents themselves are to be protected by the State Monuments Act (Refer Dwg. No.7). No demolition is allowed, unless sanctioned by the CDP. The entire monitoring and quality control is done under the State Monuments Act.
Park and Visitor Management
In order to ensure efficient functioning of the park and effective management of the cultural resources, different aspects of management need to be taken into consideration. This has been described earlier (refer Chapter 4) under Core Management and includes Area Management, Administrative management, Staffing & Facilities Management, Services management, and Maintenance Management. Chapter 7 establishes the needs to transition to the concept of Integrated Management, which incorporates the management of cultural resources. To this can be added Visitor Management which is a direct outcome of the thrust of the CDP to make the Fort accessible to the citizens of Imphal, Manipur, and elsewhere.
From the point of view of a CDP, the main objectives of management thus include:
- To preserve, protect and interpret the Kangla Fort Archaeological Park’s cultural heritage values
- To provide the opportunity for and encourage research by bona fide educational institutions and qualified and interested individuals
- To provide for the health, safety, recreational needs of the visitors
- To efficiently manage the park operations.
- To maintain the heritage components and integrate their maintenance within the overall management system.
Visitor Management is a facet of management introduced by the proposal of “Kangla Fort Archaeological Park” which opens the fort to regular visitors. Management of visitors is very critical and important for the success of the Archaeological Park after its inception. The provisions for the visitors proposed within the Park that would require management are:
- Visitor Interpretation Centre and Various Museums
- The support required for such provisions is guides and staff for assistance and direction and educational materials such as books and pamphlets. Additional small visitor information kiosks may be needed depending on the success of the park as a visitor destination.
- Visitor Interpretation at Site Level
- The approach to proposed visitor experience in the park is Interpretation with choice, which will be facilitated by walking paths, and trails and appropriately designed and placed signage.
- Facilities for general visitor comfort
- Waiting spaces - covered / open with benches – will be provided at critical locations such as the parking. Since the park is very large, benches will as a rule be provided at regular intervals. Toilets will be constructed at specified locations of high visitor activity.
- Facilities for other visitor needs
- Ample parking for cars and scooters will be provided inside the southern (visitor) entrance. The Visitor Centre will have a Lost & Found centre, as well as a small Photo Shop. The adjacent picnic area will have a snack bar or small fast food centre.
- Facilities for Disabled and Young Visitors
- Handicap accessible ramps will be provided at all buildings, new or old. Wheelchairs and strollers will be provided at the Visitor Centre. First Aid will be provided at the Visitor Centre and other locations in the Park.
- Recreation spaces
- The primary open space (parade ground) of Kangla Fort is proposed in the CDP to remain as an active recreation area for informal games. The adjacent space around Nungjeng Pukri is for passive recreation and relaxing. A camping ground for schoolchildren has also been proposed as part of the CDP.
Public Participation in the CDP
The basic management strategy for the park in-built into the CDP is to maintain it as a public asset with a areas dedicated to archaeology, historical interpretation, multiple-reuse and recreation within the existing legislation of the two Acts. Public participation has been another important aspect of the management strategy, which started as soon as the conceptualization of the project, and has consisted of the following activities:
The Kangla Fort Archaeological Park Team conducted a community survey among the residents of Imphal as a part of the preliminary site study. This revealed the desires and aspirations of the people regarding the future proposals for Kangla. One hundred and fifty two people in a wide range of age group were interviewed from various sections of the society. Fifty percent of the people wished that the Kangla fort be preserved as a ‘Historic monument’. Thirty five percent of the citizens wanted the fort to be retained as a ‘Historic monument’ along with it being used as a ‘Cultural Park’, ‘Recreational Park’ and ‘Environmental Park’.
The works of eminent Manipuri persons such as Tombi Singh, vice-chancellor, Manipur university, journalist Salam Rajesh and advocate Nandakumar were also used as reference to develop the Concept Development Plan.
In February 2003, the Kangla Fort Archaeological Park Team presented the preliminary Concept Plan in Imphal to a wide range of eminent personalities and other interested citizens. At the conclusion of the presentation and subsequent comments and discussions it was decided to accept the direction of the Concept Plan entirely.
General Policies of the CDP
The CDP establishes several general, or umbrella, policies towards interventions on the site, such as:
- The CDP entails the removal of several military buildings and associated structures of no heritage value as these are in conflict with the conceptual thrust of the CDP as an Archaeological Park (Refer Dwg. No. 09)
- No demolition is permitted within the extents of the Kangla Fort Archaeological Park except where clearly stated and indicated in the CDP.
- No new construction is permitted within the extents of the Kangla Fort Archaeological Park except where clearly stated and indicated in the CDP.
- Hypothetical re-constructions of historic and/or religious structures are not permitted within the Kangla Fort Archaeological Park as this goes against the principle of Authenticity (refer Chapter 2). Re-constructions of such structures can only be permitted if expert assessment of the available and authenticated documentary (photography / illustration) evidence shows that such structures can be re-built in an authentic manner. All other re-constructions, such as that for the Temple of the Pakenbah may be symbolically reconstructed in the form of sculptures or installations but not as imagined buildings.
- No extensions or alterations are permitted to the existing buildings in the Kangla Fort Archaeological Park. If the departments, which are designated to reuse the facilities, expand beyond the capacity of the park buildings to provide for their expanded requirements then they will have to relocate that part of their operation outside the park or move out entirely as the case may be.
- A no-encroachment strategy is to be adopted for the Kangla Fort Archaeological Park. Pilgrims can visit the park and make their pilgrimage but they cannot reside within the park.
- No residential accommodation is permitted within the Kangla Fort Archaeological Park with the exception of the Guest House and areas used for military accommodation. The Camping Site is for temporary accommodation only. Additional areas may be provided for camping at the discretion of the Kangla Fort Archaeological Park Committee.
- Only essential visitor amenities as noted in the CDP are to be provided for inside the Kangla Fort Archaeological Park. Extraneous visitor amenities or new facilities for entertainment are not permitted within the park.
- Landscape and horticulture activities within the Kangla Fort Archaeological Park are to be confined to the maintenance of existing gardens and all other soft landscape (grass, wild grass) areas, along with horticulture development of new gardens and arboretums (tree planting) where specified in the CDP – in an authentic manner and in the spirit of the Kangla Charter.
- 1. The concept of an ‘Archaeological Park’ was accepted by the earlier steering committee chaired by the Chief Minister, when the paper was presented to them by Prof. Nalini Thakur, coordinator of the Archaeological Park project.
The Park Brief: Proposed Sectors (Refer Dwg. No. 10)
The CDP divides the Kangla Fort Archaeological Park into various theme-based sectors, each with a clear delineation, and each of which allow and guide different uses.
Manipur Period Interpretation Theme (Sectors 1,2 and part of 3, 4, & 7)
Total Area: 2,87,150sqm
Within Sector 1 the Manipur Period Interpretation theme includes the archaeological remains of the citadel portion of the fort, the Govindajee temple, the Citadel wall and Bastion, Uttra and all sacred spaces and shrines and trees.
Within Sector 2 it includes the outer fort wall and outer moat. Within Sector 3 it includes the Nungjeng Pukri and the Inner Moat.
Within Sector 4 it includes the Brindaban Chandra temple.
Within Sector 7 it includes the Lai Pukri and the sacred spaces next to it.
British Period Interpretation Theme (Sector 4)
Total Area: 75,600sqm
In Sector 4 the British Period Interpretation theme includes the British buildings of the Field Marshall Slim’s cottage, Commandant’s office and residence, Officer’s club etc.
Recreational Theme (Parts of Sector 3)
Total Area: 1,43,000sqm
Within Sector 3 the Recreational theme includes the parade ground and the open space surrounding the Nungjeng Pukri.
Visitor Management and Interpretation Theme (Sector 5)
Total Area: 26,000sqm
In Sector 5 the Visitor Management and Interpretation Theme includes the Unit Hospital, the Women’s Hospital, open areas behind the hospitals, and ancillary buildings on the site.
Reuse Theme (Sector 6)
Total Area: 1,56,500sqm
In Sector 6 the Reuse theme include the various barracks, Quarter guard (AR 17) and War memorial.
Multiple-use theme (Part of Sector 7)
Total Area: 1,40,495
In Sector 7 the Multiple-use theme includes the D.I.G’s residence, the DDAM and Subedar Major’s Residences, ancillary buildings in this area. It also includes various open spaces near these buildings.
Ecological theme (Sector 8)
Total Area: 92,775
In Sector 8, the Ecological Theme includes the river edge including the bund, the river bank and Kekru Pat, and the strip of land along the northern boundary of the main fort.
The Park Brief: General Project Categories
Each Project Category described below is based on the applicable legislation, the body responsible, the nature of the resource and appropriate action. These categories are the basis for organization of projects within each sector as given in Volume-II.
Project Category A/ project type – Archaeology / Conservation/ Historical Interpretation:
The applicable legislation for this category are both the State monuments Act and the Manipur Town and Country Planning Act but predominantly it is the Manipur States act as the Buildings and open areas for these projects need to be preserved. The Kangla Fort Archaeological Park Technical Group is responsible for the implementation of these projects. These projects entail minimum intervention with the buildings/areas and are limited to their repair only and putting up appropriate signage and providing correct circulation to communicate the cultural value of the building/ Open area/water body/wall or any other component to the visitor. Most of the projects are for the Manipuri period cultural components.
Project Category B/ project type – Conservation Cultural Use/ Administrative Use:
The applicable legislation for this category are both the State monuments Act and the Manipur Town and Country Planning Act but predominantly it is the Manipur Town and country Planning Act as it allows for Change. The Kangla Fort Archaeological Park Task Force is responsible for the implementation of these projects. These projects entail the Introduction of new uses within the buildings. This implies that a certain level of modification, alteration and changes will be allowed to accommodate the new use as per the guidelines. The Reuse of buildings for visitor and interpretation center and museums is termed as cultural reuse. The reuse of buildings by the Ministry of culture and the army for their respective needs is termed as administrative reuse.
Project Category C/ project type – Recreational/environmental/ educational Reuse:
The applicable legislation for this category are both the State monuments Act and the Manipur Town and Country Planning Act but predominantly it is the Manipur Town and country Planning Act as it allows for Change and these projects are related to the spatial aspect of the Fort i.e., the open spaces. The Kangla Fort Archaeological Park Task Force is responsible for the implementation of these projects. These projects entail the Introduction of new appropriate uses within the open spaces of the Kangla Fort Archaeological Park. This implies that a certain level of modification, alteration and changes will be allowed to accommodate the new use as per the guidelines. These uses are of three types Recreational related to recreation needs of the people of Imphal such as the picnic area and the camping site, environmental reuse such as the orcharderium and the new plantation areas and educational reuse such as the Unity Park which show cases the culture. One project may have more than one of these reuses.
The Park Brief: Specific Project Types (Refer Dwg. No. 11):
The following project types have emerged from the general categories depending on the requirement of the cultural resource components. There are 46 cultural resource projects (which have been individually detailed in Volume-II) within eleven specific project types as given below. For a complete listing of the projects please refer Appendix No.4.
1. Archaeological and Historical Interpretation: These are 2 in number (Project Category A)
This type of project is for the cultural resources – structures and ruins that belong to the Manipuri period. These are either in ruins or underground in the form of mound. These structures / areas require archaeological investigations to find out more about them. Since these are not evident above the ground or are not complete historical interpretation becomes an important aspect. Historical interpretation includes proper signage and correct circulation to interpret and explain the cultural significance of the resource to the visitor. This will include on site methods as well as some aspects explained at the visitor interpretation center.
2. Consolidation/ Conservation/ Historical Interpretation Project: these are 5 in number (Project Category A)
This type of project is for the structures belonging to the Manipuri period. The action to these projects will restrict itself to minimum intervention. The structures that come under this category are in poor condition and will require consolidation and repair as per the guidelines to stop further decay and deterioration. No restoration or reconstruction will be allowed in these projects. Only preservation is recommended in the present condition. Historical interpretation will include provision of appropriate signage and correct circulation.
3. Conservation/ Historical Interpretation Project: these are 5 in number (Project Category A)
This type of project is for the water bodies both sacred and secular and sacred open spaces. This will include conservation action for the water bodies, which will include de-silting, cleaning and maintenance. As the case may arise it may also include the revitalization of the water body. Historical interpretation will include provision of appropriate signage and correct circulation.
4. Historical Interpretation Project: this is 1 in number (Project Category A)
This project is the sacred trail, which will go through the citadel area linking all the existing cultural and sacred components of the area. This project will include interpretation of this area by signage and pathway.
5. Conservation/ Restoration / Historical Interpretation: 2 in Number (Project Category A)
This type of project is for the most significant British period building and its compound - Field Marshall Slim’s Cottage and Garden. This will include the restoration of both the garden and the building to the time of Field Marshall Slim. (World War II). This will include conservation of the structure as well as extensive reconstruction of the interiors and the garden based on research of the period. This will also include interpretation of the building for the Visitors.
6. Conservation Project: 4 in number (Project Category B)
This type of project is for buildings, which are to be reused for cultural use like museums and interpretation center and some other buildings to be used for administrative reuse by Ministry of Culture. These buildings are the more significant British period buildings. This project will entail conserving the building in its current state and may include preservation, restoration, consolidation, and reconstruction before the building can be reused.
7. Cultural Resource Reuse Project: 4 in number (Project Category B)
Cultural resource reuse implies reuse for cultural uses like interpretation and museums. Basically uses which are for the public. These projects are given to significant historical structures of the British Period. Certain changes, which do not compromise, on the cultural significance of these will be permissible as per the guidelines
8. Administrative reuse project: 3 in number (Project Category B)
Administrative reuse implies reuse by ministry of Culture for their offices and other functions. These projects are given to significant historical structures of the British Period. Certain changes, which do not compromise, on the cultural significance of these will be permissible as per the guidelines
9. Conservation / Administrative Reuse Project: 2 in Number (Project Category B)
This type of project is for the British period buildings to be reused by the army. The conservation of the buildings will precede their reuse. The conservation action will include preservation, restoration, consolidation and reconstruction. The reuse aspect will allow for change in use with certain alterations and additions to be carried out as per the guidelines without compromising the cultural value.
10. Recreational Reuse Project: 3 in number (Project Category C)
This project type is for open spaces. The open spaces are used for purely recreational purposes for the public like picnic areas and camping site. This may include the provision of visitor amenities like drinking water and toilets. Some new features may have to be added to these open spaces such as benches, garbage receptacles and other landscaping elements. All additions and alterations will be carried out as per guidelines.
11. Recreational / Educational Reuse Project: 3 in number (Project Category C)
This type of project is for the open space reuse and has the both the aspects of recreation and education. This will involve almost complete alteration of these open spaces with either new plant material, or structures.
12. Recreational/ environmental Reuse project: 3 in Number (Project Category C)
This type of project is for the ecologically important open spaces of Kangla Fort Archaeological Park. This may include the construction of pathways or trails or new plantation.
Implementation of the CDP
There are two aspects of implementation of the CDP. These are the implementation of the CDP as a comprehensive development scheme and the implementation of the individual projects. Realization of the Archaeological Park Vision will take many years. The current estimate is for the immediate activities that can be initiated by the Government of Manipur. Decisions regarding planting and general site improvements are the start of an enormous endeavour, which will require commitment and funds.
Implementation of the heritage and re-use projects involves many stages within two specific phases – that of conservation and that of re-use. This is why for instance museum projects in Volume-II have been split into two separate projects accordingly. Immediate documentation and conservation measures for the heritage monuments and buildings have been recommended. The critical stages are:
- Architectural Measured drawings
- Condition assessment by a competent and experienced person who will be able to identify what investigations are required and diagnose the problems and list the solutions in order of priority.
- Conservation project comprising the rectification of decay problems, knocking down incorrect extensions and additions
- Upgrading of services
- Making changes to accommodate new use
- Execution of work by specialists structural and lighting etc
- Cleaning of building
- Decisions taken on finishes, plasters etc from results of investigations made
- Exhibition work executed
Monitoring & Review of the CDP
Monitoring and review of all projects under the CDP is the responsibility of the State Department of Archaeology. There are various reasons for a monitoring process and these are:
- To assess whether the cultural values of the resource are being maintained as a whole
- To update the information about the state of conservation of various heritage components, and the changes and transformations at the site.
- To ensure the quality of conservation work or any other action doe not undermine the cultural value of the resource.
The State Department of Archaeology will carry out a review process annually to asses the status of the plan implementation, quality of work, modifications and future actions as per the provisions of the Kangla Charter, later to become the Archaeological Park Act.
Management Plans under the CDP
An overall Maintenance and Management Plan is essential for the development of the CDP for the Kangla Fort Archaeological Park (refer Chapter 4). It shall be prepared by the Kangla Fort Archaeological Park Task Force and approved by the Kangla Fort Archaeological Park Committee. Several management plans fall under the umbrella of the Maintenance and Management Plan. These are as follows:
- Area management Plan – Planning Dept
- Cultural resource Management Plan- Dept. of Archeology Services and Infrastructure Management Plan- PWD
- Staffing and Personnel management Plan_ Kangla Fort Archaeological Park Office The Visitor Management Plan- Kangla Fort Archaeological Park Office
- Phasing and Financial management Plan- Kangla Fort Archaeological Park Task Force
- Project Management Plan- Kangla Fort Archaeological Park Office
Finance & Phasing for the CDP
The effective implementation of the Park proposal would necessitate the phasing of the entire project. The phasing would depend on the prioritization of the various activities related to heritage management and maintenance depending on the financial resources available. As a starting point, the project activities have been divided into three phases of implementation, which has been detailed out in the Volume- II. Landscape and open-area projects may be implemented after identifying the concerned agencies, but for the conservation projects much more preparatory work has to be done and the expert teams have to be constituted. The Museum on Kangla could potentially be one of the first projects to be undertaken. The reason for this is the same as the structure of this report – the museum would establish the significance of Kangla Fort as a local, national, and international heritage resource –which is the first step.
The financial plan is the most important and critical document related to the Archaeological Park project. While the Phasing and the overall estimate are critical factors, but the Annual budget costs must also be taken into consideration to understand the running costs of the archaeological park in future. Details of the kinds and amounts of finances that are required are described the section on Funding Mechanisms For Integrated Management in Chapter 7. Details of project-related finances are discussed at the end of Volume-II.